1. Short title, extent and commencement.
1. Object of enactment.
of objects and Reasons.
Principles of Interpretation.
(i) Task of interpretation.
To ascertain legislative intent.
(iii) Aids to construction.
(a) Contemporanea expositio.
(c) Rule of ejusdem generis.
(d) Legislative history.
(e) Marginal notes.
(f) Parliamentary debates.
(g) Select Committee Report.
(h) Subsequent enectment.
(i) Statement of Objects and Reasons.
(iv) Strict construction of penal statute.
(v) Legal fiction.
1. Definition clause—Purpose.
2. nbsp; Definition clause to prevail.
(i) Unless context otherwise requires.
(ii) Definition when exhaustive and when extensive.
3. Schedules Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
(i) Classification of Scheduled Castes on basis of occupation not
violative of Articles 14 and 341.
(ii) Identification of Scheduled Castes—Courts not to take exercise.
(iii) Claim of being Scheduled Caste.
(iv) Court cannot issue mandamus for granting declaration of
particular Caste as ‘Scheduled Caste’.
(v) Scheduled Caste person belonging to particular SC community
migrating to State having no such community not entitled to benefit in State of
(vi) Community Certificate.
(vii) Determination of Scheduled Caste.
(viii) All members of Thandan community throughout Kerala
Offences of Atrocities
3. Punishments for offences of atrocities.
2. Forcing S.C. or S.T. member to drink or eat inedible or
3. Injury, insult or annoyance.
(i) Injury under Section 44, IPC.
4. Forcibly removing clothes or parading naked or with
painted face or body.
5. Wrongful occupation or cultivation of land.
6. Wrongful dispossession or interference with enjoyment.
7. Compelling or enticing for ‘Begar’.
8. Forcing or intimidating not to vote.
9. Institution of false, malicious or vexatious suit, etc.
10. False or frivolous information.
11. Intentional insult or intimidation to humiliate.
12. Assault or use of force to S.C. or S.T. woman with intent
to dishonour or outrage her modesty.
13. Sexual exploitation of S.C. or S.T. woman.
14. Corrupting or fouling water.
15. Denial of customary right of passage.
16. Forcing or causing member of SC. or S.T. to leave his
17. Giving or fabricating false evidence in capital offence.
18. Giving or fabricating false evidence for offence
punishable for 7 years or more.
19. Mischief by fire or any explosive substance for causing
damage to property.
20. Mischief by fire or any explosive causing damage to place
of worship or dwelling house, etc.
21. Offence under IPC punishable with imprisonment of 10 years
22. Causing disappearance of evidence.
23. Offence by public servant.
24. Mens rea—Exclusion by statute permissible.
(i) Requisites of ‘complaint’.
(a) Allegation of commission of offence.
(b) Complaint may be oral or in writing.
(ii) Presentation of complaint.
(iii) Complaint to be made to Magistrate.
(iv) Complaint must be with view of Magistrate taking action
under the Code.
(v) Commission of offence by some person necessary.
(a) Offence of defamation.
(b) Offence may have been committed by known or unknown
(vi) Police report not complaint.
(vii) Report of police officer disclosing non-cognizable offence
(a) Disclosure of non-cognizable offence after investigation,
whether authorised or not?
(b) Disclosure of non-cognizable offence after and not before
(c) Permission under Section 155 (2) not relevant.
(viii) No form of complaint.
(ix) Complaint to be filed by whom?.
(a) Persons competent to file complaint.
(b) No complaint in representative capacity subject to
(x) No joint complaint.
(xi) Difference between complaint and information.
(xii) Delay in filing complaint to be explained.
(xiii) Protest petition against final report when complaint ?.
(xiv) Objection to maintainability of complaint.
(xv) Termination of complaint.
(xvi) Withdrawal of complaint—Section 257 Cr. P. C. what enacts.
(i) Framing of charge.
(ii) Common charge.
(iii) Revision against framing of charge.
(i) No power with Magistrate to call upon police to submit
(ii) Charge-sheet filed beyond limitation not sustainable.
29. Taking cognizance of offence.
30. Arrest by police officer.
(i) Power not to be exercised arbitrarily.
(ii) Arrest when may be stayed?.
(iii) Stay of arrest by writ Court.
31. Constitutional mandate on arrest and detention.
(ii) Authority to whom representation to be made.
(iii) Communication of grounds of detention, as soon as may be ;
Grounds what constitute?
(iv) Expeditious disposal of representation.
(v) Delay in disposal of representation of detenu to be
(vi) Interference by Court with preventive detention.
(vii) Bail vis-a-vis preventive detention.
(viii) Person concerned already in detention.
(ix) Detenu’s representation to be considered both by
Government and Advisory Board.
4. Punishment for neglect of duties.
1. Scope and applicability of provision.
2. Taking of cognizance.
3. Framing of charge.
(ii) Different punishment.
5. Finding of guilty.
6. Expression “wilfully neglects”.
5. Enhanced Punishment for subsequent conviction.
1. Provision for enhanced punishment in IPC
2. Provision of Cr.P.C. on previous conviction
6. Application of certain provisions of the Indian Penal
1. Applicability of provisions of Indian Penal Code.
2. Common intention.
(i) ‘Common intention’ what is?—Not similar intention.
(ii) Section 34 when to apply?—Physical presence and
participation necessary subject to exception.
(iii) Active participation or doing of some overt act
necessary—Common intention may develop at spur of moment—Common intention inferable
from proved circumstances.
(iv) Distinction between Section 34 and Section 149, I.P.C..
(v) Common Intention—How proved?
(vi) Instances of absence of common intention.
3. Relevant provisions of IPC on punishment.
4. Provisions of IPC on general exceptions.
5. Provisions of IPC on Right of Private Defence.
6. Provisions of IPC on abetment.
7. Provisions of IPC on criminal conspiracy.
(ii) Distinction between Section 120A and Section 34.
(iii) Sections 120A and 107.
(iv) Criminal conspiracy how proved?.
(1) ‘Conspiracy’ what constitutes.
(3) Sanction to prosecute.
(4) Agreement to break law.
8. Unlawful assembly.
(ii) Prosecution of common object.
9. Attempt to commit offences.
(iii) Printing of receipt forms for fraudulent purpose.
(iv) Going with stale milk where cows were milked.
(v) Attempt to commit offence.
(vi) Act preparatory to commit murder.
7. Forfeiture of property of certain persons.
3. Conviction precondition before forfeiture.
6. Attachment of whole property.
8. Protection for act done in discharge of official duty.
8. Presumption as to offences.
2. Presumption of abetment of offence.
(i) Abetment.—A crime apart.
(ii) Abetment—Commission of offence not necessary.
(iii) Charge of Abetment—When to fail?.
3. Presumption of commission of offence in furtherance of common intention
or in prosecution of common object.
(i) Clause (b).
(ii) Relevant provisions of Cr.P.C..
9. Conferment of powers.
1. Conferment of powers of police officer on any officer by
2. Powers of arrest.
(i) Arrest without warrant—When?
(ii) Requirements to be observed while making arrest.
(iii) Investigation soon after arrest.
(iv) Offence committed outside India.
3. Information in cognizable offences.
(i) First information report—What is?.
(ii) Police bound to register case.
(iii) Delay in lodging F.I.R..
(iv) Evidentiary value of FIR..
(v) Interference with FIR when?.
4. Power to investigate in cognizable cases.
(i) Scope of power of investigation.
(ii) Investigation what constitutes?
(iii) Duty of investigating officer.
(iv) Irregularity in investigation.
(v) Delay in investigation.
(vi) Arrest during investigation not for punishing accused.
(vii) Improper investigation.
(viii) Order by Magistrate for investigation.
5. Report of investigation.
6. Submission of Charge-sheet.
(i) Bond and Charge-sheet.
(ii) Further investigation not precluded.
(iii) Magistrate competent to take cognizance even if police
(iv) Right of complainant.
(v) Issue of process in absence of accused.
(vi) Magistrate not bound by police report.
(vii) Rejection of objection of complainant to discharge accused on police report without giving reasons not sustainable.
10. Removal of person likely to commit offence.
1. Scope of provision : Externment of person likely to commit offence.
(i) Discretion to be exercised judicially.
(ii) Opportunity of hearing to be given.
(iii) Reasons to be recorded.
2. Communication of grounds.
3. Revocation or modification of order.
(i) Order not executable for period of 30 days.
(ii) Double opportunity envisaged.
4. Penalty for non-compliance.
11. Procedure on failure of person to remove himself from area and enter thereon after removal.
Scheme of provision
12. Taking measurements and photographs, etc., of persons against whom order under Section 10 is made.
13. Penalty for non-compliance with order under Section 10.
14. Special Court.
1. Court of Session to be Special Court to try offences.
2. Commitment of case by Magistrate to Court of Session.
(ii) Magistrate not competent to frame charge or discharge accused.
3. Conduct of trial by Public Prosecutor.
4. Opening of prosecution case.
5. Discharge of accused.
(i) Right of accused to seek discharge at any stage.
(ii) Order of discharge not legal.
6. Framing of Charge.
(i) Consideration while framing Charge.
(ii) Confession when to be recorded—Conviction when not sustainable?.
(iii) Material not permissible to be looked into.
(iv) Prosecution not required to prove accusation beyond all reasonable doubt.
(v) Framing of charge valid.
7. Conviction on plea of guilty.
(i) No conviction, if no case made out on statement of accused.
(ii) Plea of guilt can be advanced at any stage.
8. Date for prosecution evidence.
(i) Fixation of date for prosecution evidence.
(ii) Responsibility to secure attendance of witnesses.
9. Evidence for prosecution.
(i) Deferment of cross-examination of witnesses and recall of witness.
(ii) Deficiency in sketch.
(i) Contents of judgment.
(ii) Effect of failure to follow procedure.
(i) Rejection of application of accused to summon his witnesses if vitiates trial?
(ii) Right of accused—When not to be defeated?.
13. Judgment of acquittal or conviction.
14. Previous conviction.
15. Procedure in cases instituted under Section 199 (2).
16. Court’s power to proceed against other persons appearing to be guilty of offence.
(i) Provisions to be used sparingly.
15. Special Public Prosecutor.
1. General remarks
2. Appointment of Special Public Prosecutor
3. Withdrawal from prosecution
16. Power of State Government to impose collective fine.
1. Section 10-A of Protection of Civil Rights Act
2. Scheme of imposition and relisation of collective fine.
17. Preventive action to be taken by the law and order machinery.
1. Preventive action.
2. Provisions of Cr.P.C. applicable.
3. Section 106, Cr.P.C..
(i) Offences punishable under Chapter VIII, IPC.
(ii) Satisfaction of Court necessary.
(iii) Opinion to be recorded.
4. Section 107.
(i) Person to be bound under Section 107.
(ii) Order in writing incorporating grounds necessary.
(iii) Police powerless to arrest.
(iv) Information not compliant.
(v) Show cause to be required.
(vi) Proceedings to be dropped when no danger to peace.
(vii) No issue estoppel on rejection of evidence under previous proceeding.
5. Section 108 Cr.P.C..
(i) Intentional dissemination of seditious matter.
(ii) No contravention of Article 19 (1) (a) of Constitution.
(iii) Criminal intimidation or defamation of a Judge.
6. Section 109 Cr.P.C..
7. Section 110 Cr.P.C..
(i) Section 110 and Section 401, I.P.C..
(ii) Prevention of misuse of power.
(iii) Protraction of proceedings no ground for nullification of order.
(iv) Presence of person within local limits of jurisdiction sufficient.
8. Section 111 Cr.P.C..
(i) Quantum of security have to be fixed.
(ii) Order to be for keeping peace and not for good behaviour.
(iii) Substance of information to be incorporated in show cause notice.
(iv) Requirement of preliminary order.
9. Section 112 Cr.P.C..
(i) Procedure after order passed.
(ii) Order to be read over to person if present in Court.
10. Section 113 Cr.P.C..
(i) Warrant of arrest when to be issued?.
(ii) No warrant without passing an order under Section 111.
11. Section 114 Cr.P.C..
(i) Copy of order to be sent with warrant or summons.
(ii) Notice nor summons.
12. Section 115 Cr.P.C..
13. Section 116 Cr.P.C..
(i) Magistrate bound to hold inquiry.
(ii) Offer to give security, not plea of guilty.
(iii) Evidence of general repute what is ?.
14. Section 117 Cr.P.C..
(i) Order to give security.
(ii) Order of security to be in consonance with order under Section 111.
(iii) Bond amount not to be excessive.
15. Section 118 Cr.P.C..
(i) No dismissal in default.
(ii) No revision against discharge.
16. Section 119 Cr.P.C..
(i) Period of bond when to commence where appeal or revision filed?.
(ii) Period of bond when to commence if person in jail?.
17. Section 120 Cr.P.C..
(i) Content and nature of bond.
(ii) Forfeiture of bond on its breach.
(iii) Bond cannot be forfeited by non-jurisdictional Magistrate.
18. Section 121 Cr.P.C..
(i) No ground to reject bond.
(ii) Rejection of surety permissible only after enquiry.
19. Section 122 Cr.P.C..
(i) Order of imprisonment when bad?.
(ii) Period for which imprisonment to be awarded.
(iii) Requirement when cases of two or more persons referred to Sessions Judge.
20. Section 123 Cr.P.C..
(i) Release, etc. of person failing to give security.
(ii) Cancellation of bond.
(iii) Discharge of surety.
21. Section 124 Cr.P.C..
22. Section 129 Cr.P.C..
(i) ‘Unlawful assembly’ —What means?.
(ii) Dispersal by Police Officer.
23. Section 130 Cr.P.C..
(i) Little force and injury.
24. Section 131 Cr.P.C..
(i) Dispersal of assembly by army officer when permissible?.
25. Section 132 Cr.P.C..
(i) No prosecution without sanction.
(ii) Sanction under provision of Section 132 not substitute for sanction under Section 197.
26. Section 133 Cr.P.C..
(i) ‘Public nusiance’—What is?.
(ii) Provision applies only to existing nuisance.
(iii) Sections 133 and 147.
(iv) Demolishing structure without following procedure—Not sustainable.
27. Section 134 Cr.P.C..
28. Section 135 Cr.P.C..
29. Section 136 Cr.P.C..
30. Section 137 Cr.P.C..
(i) Provision mandatory.
(ii) Order without following procedure vitiated.
31. Section 138 Cr.P.C..
(i) Making conditional order absolute without taking evidence vitiated.
(ii) Burden of Proof.
(iii) Modification of conditional order.
32. Section 139 Cr.P.C..
(ii) Object of local investigation.
33. Section 141 Cr.P.C..
(i) Notice after making order absolute.
(ii) Consequence on non-compliance with notice.
(iii) No civil suit.
34. Section 142 Cr.P.C..
(i) Condition precedent for issuing injunction pending enquiry.
35. Section 143 Cr.P.C..
36. Section 144 Cr.P.C..
(i) Foundation for proceeding.
(ii) Restriction on press when and how?.
37. Section 145 Cr.P.C..
(i) ‘Dispute’ what means?.
(ii) Magistrate how to proceed under provision.
(iii) Grounds of belief to be stated in preliminary order and Magistrate to act on his own satisfaction.
(v) Proceeding whether can be quashed under Section 482, Cr.P.C.?.
38. Section 146 Cr.P.C..
(i) Attachment when none of parties in possession.
(ii) Attachment when illegal?.
39. Section 147 Cr.P.C..
(i) Standard of proof.
(ii) Order for the removal of obstruction.
40. Section 148 Cr.P.C..
(i) Cost of proceedings.
(ii) Opportunity of hearing while imposing cost necessary.
41. Section 149 Cr.P.C..
(ii) Prevention to be done even in defiance of order of the higher authorities.
42. Section 150 Cr.P.C..
43. Section 151 Cr.P.C..
(i) Arrested person not to be detained for more than 24 hours..
44. Section 152 Cr.P.C..
18. Section 438 of the Code not to apply to persons committing an offence under the Act.
1. Exclusion of applicability of Section 438, Cr.P.C. on ‘anticipatory bail’.
2. Constitusional validity.
3. Provision laudable but cannot be converted into instrument of black-mail to wreck some personal vengeance.
4. Right of Court to prima facie examine allegations in complaint not taken away : Anticipatory bail when grantable.
5. Bail grantable when no allegation in chargesheet to attract Act.
6. Juvenile offender how to be dealt with?.
7. Anticipatory bail when not grantable?.
8. For anticipatory bail Court of Session and not High Court to be approached first.
9. No prohibition on regular bail.
19. Section 360 of the Code or the provisions of the Probation of Offenders Act not to apply to persons guilty of an offence under the Act.
1. Exclusion of applicability of provisions on probation
20. Act to override other laws
1. Overriding effect of Act
2. ‘Custom’ what means?
3. ‘Usage’ what cannotes?
21. Duty of Government to ensure effective implementation of the Act.
1. Duty of State Government to ensure effective implementation
2. Co-ordination by Central Government
22. Protection of action taken in good faith.
1. Scope of provision : Protection
2. Good faith
23. Power to make rules.
1. Rule-making power of Central Government.
2. Validity of rules.
3. Rule to be laid before Parliament.
(i) Object : Parliament retains control over rule-making authority.
(ii) Invalid rule not valid by merely laying before Parliament.
(iii) Rules not to acquire status of statute but to remain delegated legislation.
THE SCHEDULED CASTES AND THE SCHEDULED TRIBES
(PREVENTION OF ATROCITIES)
1. Short title and commencement.
3. Precautionary and Preventive Measures.
4. Supervision of prosecution and submission of Report.
5. Information to Police Officer-in-Charge of a Police Station.
6. Spot inspection by officers.
7. Investigating Officer.
8. Setting up of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes Protection Cell.
9. Nomination of Nodal Officer.
10. Appointment of a Special Officer.
11. Travelling Allowance, Daily Allowance, Maintenance Expenses and Transport facilities to the victim of atrocity, his or her dependant and witnesses.
12. Measures to be taken by the District Administration.
13. Selection of officers and other staff members for completing the work relating to atrocity.
14. Specific responsibility of the State Government.
15. Contingency Plan by the State Government.
16. Constitution of State-Level Vigilance and Monitoring Committee.
17. Constitution of District-Level Vigilance and Monitoring Committee.
18. Material for Annual Report.