damages and compensation

general contents

 

----- Preface to the Second Edition

----- Preface to the First Edition

----- Abbreviation

----- Detailed contents

----- Table of cases

PART ONE

damages  and compensation

chapter 1

Rules Relating to Damages

chapter 2

Rules Relating to COMPENSATION

chapter 3

DAMAGES IN TORT

chapter 4

Damages arising out of Contracts

chapter 5

Damages arising out of Sale of Goods

chapter 6

Damages arising out of Partnership

chapter 7

Compensation for violation of Fundamental Freedom and Human Rights

chapter 8

Compensation and Relief to Members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes against Atrocities

chapter 9

Compensation in Motor Accident

chapter 10

Compensation under the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923

chapter 11

Compensation under the Fatal Accidents Act, 1855

chapter 12

Compensation under Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948

chapter 13

Compensation under the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991

chapter 14

Compensation under Civil Procedure Code and Criminal Procedure Code

chapter 15

Compensation under the Constitution of India

chapter 16

compensation under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986

chapter 17

compensation under the Negotiable Instruments, act, 1881

chapter 18

Compensation under the Indian Electricity Act

chapter 19

Claim for Damages and Compensation against Railways

chapter 20

compensation under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

chapter 21

Compensation arising out ofAcquisition of Land

 

PART two

interim relief

chapter 22

laws Relating to Interim Relief

chapter 23

Interim Compensation under the Criminal Law

chapter 24

Interim Relief under the Civil Procedure Code, 1908

chapter 25

Interim Relief under the Indian Railways Act, 1989

chapter 26

Interim Relief under the M.V. Act, 1988

chapter 27

Interim Relief under the Fatal Accidents Act, 1855

PART three

rules relating to maintenance and interim maintenance

chapter 28

Rules Relating to Maintenance

chapter 29

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

chapter 30

Maintenance Under the code of criminal procedure, 1973

chapter 31

Maintenance under the Indian Divorce Act, 1869

chapter 32

Maintenance under the Special Marriage Act, 1954

chapter 33

Maintenance under the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986

chapter 34

Maintenance under Civil procedure code, 1908

chapter 35

Laws relating to Interim Maintenance

chapter 36

Laws relating to Interim Maintenance under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

chapter 37

laws relating to the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956

chapter 38

Interim Maintenance under the Special Marriage Act, 1954

chapter 39

Interim Maintenance under the Indian Divorce Act, 1869

chapter 40

Interim Maintenance under code of criminal procedure, 1973

INDEX

 

DETAILED contents

 

PART ONE

damages  and compensation

 

----- Preface to the Second Edition

----- Preface to the First Edition

----- Abbreviation

----- General contents

----- Table of cases

 

chapter 1

Rules Relating to Damages

                 1.... Damages—Meaning of

                 2.... Damages—Object of

                 3.... Damages—Nature of

                 4.... Damages—Origin of

                 5.... Principal systems of Jurisprudence

              (i) -- Hindu Jurisprudence

            (ii)    Mohammedan Jurisprudence

           (iii)    English Jurisprudence

            (iv)    Anglo-Indian Jurisprudence.

                 6.... Damages—Classification of.

                 7.... Damages—Heads of.

                 8.... Special damages in case of personal injury

                 9.... Special damages in case of fatal accident

              10.... General damages in case of personal injury

              11.... General damages in case of fatal accident

              12.... Damages—Kinds of

              (i)    Contemptuous damages.

            (ii)    Nominal damages

           (iii)    Substantial or ordinary damages

            (iv)    Exemplary, punitive or vindicative damages

              13.... Damages—Measures of.

              14.... Moral damages.

              15.... “Pecuniary” and “Non-pecuniary” damages.

              16.... Aggravation and mitigation of damages.

              17.... Prospective damages.

              18.... Consequential damages.

              19.... Liquidated damages and un-liquidated damages.

              20.... Statutory damages.

              21.... Irreparable damages.

              22.... Vindicative and punitive damages.

              23.... Aggravated and exemplary damages in English Law.

              24.... Damages for illegal detention.

              25.... Computation of damages.

              26.... Measure of damages.

              27.... No exact uniform rule for valuation.

              28.... Damages and interest on delayed payment—Imposition of.

              29.... Damages—Assessment of.

              30.... Rejection of claim for damages.

              31.... Award of damages by trial Court in absence of written statement and full trial.

              32.... Compensation—What interest—Delay in disposal of claim before Claims Tribunal

              33.... Damages—Recovery of.

              34.... Suit for damages—Maintainability of.

              35.... Suit for damages—Liability of payment.

chapter 2

Rules Relating to COMPENSATION

                 1.... Compensation—Concept of.

                 2.... Compensation—Meaning and definition.

                 3.... Compensation—Suggestion of

                 4.... Compensation—Object of.

                 5.... Damages and compensation—Distinction between.

                 6. .. Tortuous liability of the State under British Rule.

                 7.... Genesis of the concept of State liability.

                 8.... Since Constitution came into force compensation for tortuous liability of State.

                 9.... Infringement of fundamental freedom and human rights—Compensation.

              10.... Change in the concept of sovereignty—A new approach.

              11.... Test of sovereign and non-sovereign functions.

              12.... Change in concept of sovereign immunity.

              13.... Scope of the damages and compensation.

              14.... Nature and extent of right to recover compensation.

              15.... Compensation—Appropriate and effective remedy for redressal.

              16.... Compensation in public law and private law—Claim of.

              17.... Fundamental legal conceptions.

              18.... Compensation—What constitutes ?

              19.... Compensation—Fixation of.

              20.... Quantum of compensation.

              21.... Compensation —Proper subject of

              22.... Compensation—Determination of.

              23.... Award of compensation in public law action.

              24.... Compensation—Injury trifling.

              25.... Compensation amount which Court can grant

              26.... To pay compensation only and no restoration of evacuee property.

              27.... Whether compensation for rehabilitation of displaced persons?

              28.... Where no compensation provided under the statute.

              29.... Honest acts done with care.

              30.... Compensation—Custodial death.

              31.... Compensation—Death by police beating.

              32.... Compensation—Death of deceased due to beating during his incarceration.

              33.... Award of compensation by criminal Courts.

              34.... Compensation—Awarded by criminal Court merged with compensation awarded by civil Court.

              35.... Interim compensation or interim relief may be granted.

              36.... Compensation —Writ under Article 21 of Constitution.

              37.... Award of compensation by High Court in exercise of its plenary and discretionary powers.

              38.... Compensation—Where detention is illegal.

              39.... Insufficient proof of illegal detention—No entitlement for compensation.

              40.... Compensation due to treatment required was not available in India.

              41.... Government is liable to pay compensation to deceased’s parents

              42.... Compensation—Due to defective question book, examinee lost self- control.

              43.... Limitation.

              44.... Award of compensation in public law may be adjusted against the damages awarded in civil Suit.

              45.... Compensation from two forums.

              46.... Special provisions in relation to employees of Government.

              47.... Compensation by accused—Justice to victim of crime.

              48.... Damage to public property during hartal—Recovery of compensation.

              49.... Compensation for losses in communal riots.

              50.... Judicial compassion and compensation for mental agony.

chapter 3

DAMAGES IN TORT

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Development of law of torts in India.

                 3.... Foundation of liability.

                 4.... Injury imports a damage.

             (a)    Injuria sine damnum.

             (b)    Damnum sine injuria.

                 5.... Legal remedy for damages.

                 6.... Tort and breach of contract—Remedy.

                 7.... Promise to marry—Breach of—Damages.

                 8.... Tort : A breach of contract and also a crime.

                 9.... Breach of duty.

              10.... Alternative remedy in tort.

              11.... Breach of strict duty.

              12.... Motor accident—Liable to pay damages on basis of rule laid down in Rylands.

              13.... Malice in law.

              14.... Negligence.

              15.... Liability.

              16.... Maxim res ipsa loquitur—Scope of.

              17.... Res ipsa loquiter—Application of.

              18.... Volenti non fit injuria—Plea of.

              19.... Immunity of State for its sovereign acts.

              20.... Sovereign and non-sovereign functions—Distinction between.

              21.... Test of sovereign and non-sovereign functions.

              22.... Change in concept of sovereign immunity.

              23.... Liability of States and Union of India.

              24.... Vicarious liability.

              25.... Vicarious liability of State—Recovery of compensation amount paid by State for negligence of its employee.

              26.... Union of India is vicariously liable.

              27.... State held not liable.

              28.... State held liable.

              29.... False imprisonment.

              30.... Malicious proceeding in India.

              31.... Nominal damages

             (a)    English view

             (b)    Indian view.

              32.... Remoteness of consequences.

              33.... Test of natural and probable consequence or reasonable foresight

              34.... Test of direct consequence—Second view.

              35.... Direct consequences of the negligence

              36.... Same rule in India.

              37.... Liability for illegal acts.

              38.... Damages for mental and nervous shock.

              39.... Tort of medical negligence—Principle of.

              40.... Action for negligence against a doctor.

              41.... Medical negligence in hospital—Damages for.

              42.... Damages—Claim for—Medicine administered allegedly outlived its shelf life.

              43.... Foreign body left inside abdomen of patient—Liability of doctors and hospital—Damages.

              44.... Medical negligence—Liability of compensation.

              45.... Medical negligence—Claim for compensation.

              46.... Medical negligence—Liability of State to pay compensation.

              47.... Damages—In emergency consent taken of husband, not patient—Liability of doctor.

              48.... Remoteness of damages in tort or contract.

              49.... Contribution for damages.

              50.... Defamation.

              51.... Defamation—Kind of.

              52.... Libel and Slander—Distinction between.

              53.... Libel—Limitation for Compensation.

              54.... Defamation—Actionable per se.

              55.... Rule of Innuendo.

              56.... Defamation—Essentials of.

             (a)    Statement must be defamatory.

             (b)    Statement must refer to the plaintiff.

             (c)    Statement must be published.

              57.... Defence of justification or truth.

              (i)    Justification or truth.

            (ii)    Fair and bona fide comment.

           (iii)    Privilege.

        (A)   Absolute privilege       

                                               (a)... Statement made in Parliament.

                                               (b)... Reports, papers, votes and proceedings ordered to be published by either house of Parliament.

                                               (c)... Judicial Proceedings.

                                               (d)... Solicitor and client.

                                               (e)... Official duty.

                                                (f)... News reports.

        (B)   Qualified privilege.     

              58.... Intention—Malice or mistake in law of defamation.

              59.... Trespass.

             (a)    Assault.

             (b)    Battery.

              (i)    Defence of property.

            (ii)    Lawful correction.

           (iii)    Defence of person.

            (iv)    Expulsion of trespasser.

             (v)    Retaking of goods.

            (vi)    Statutory authority.

          (vii)    Leave and licence.

         (viii)    Preservation of public peace.

             (c)    False imprisonment.

              60.... Defence in action for false imprisonment.

              61.... Malicious prosecution.

              (i)    Prosecution by the defendant.

            (ii)    Reasonable and probable cause.

           (iii)    Malice.

            (iv)    Favourable termination of proceedings.

             (v)    Damages.

              62.... Malicious civil proceedings.

              63.... Claiming damages for malicious proceedings.

              64.... Malicious prosecution—Claim for damages.

              65.... Legal process put into force maliciously.

              66.... Judgment of criminal Court and relevancy thereof.

              67.... Filing of civil suit for damages—Finding of criminal Court.

              68.... Malicious prosecution—Suit for damages.

              69.... Maintenance and champerty.

              70.... Trespass to land.

              71.... Defences in action for trespass.

              72.... Tort affecting movable property.

              73.... Negligence—Means

              74.... Negligence—As an independent tort.

              75.... Negligence—Essentials of.

              (i)    Suit for damages.

            (ii)    Suit for negligence.

           (iii)    Liability for the negligent action of State's servant.

              76.... Two theories of the law of negligence.

              (i)    Subjective theory.

            (ii)    Objective theory.

              77.... Contributory negligence—What is ?

              78.... Principle of standard of care in negligence.

              79.... Burden of proof in action of negligence.

              80.... Application of maxim res ipsa loquitur.

             (a)    Rule of evidence.

             (b)    Rule  of torts

              81.... Defence in action of negligence

             (a)    Act of God or vis major.

             (b)    Inevitable accident.

             (c)    Vis major theory.

             (d)    Tort—Whether contributory negligence.

              82.... Contributory negligence of children.

              83.... Remedies for negligence.

chapter 4

Damages arising out of Contracts

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Principles of English law—Use of.

                 3.... Remedies in an action on a contract.

                 4.... Indian Contract Act—Damages and Compensation.

                 5.... Promisor and promisee.

              (i)    Privity of Contract between Promisor and Promisee.

            (ii)    Doctrine under the Indian law—General.

           (iii)    Doctrine of privity of contract.

            (iv)    Compensation for loss of bargain by pre-emption.

             (v)    Past good services.

            (vi)    Voluntary services are no consideration at law.

             (a)    Reason of the above rules.

             (b)    Exception to the above Rule 1 in Maritime law.

             (c)    Reason and scope of the exception.

          (vii)    Second consideration in case of bailment.

         (viii)    Cases where consideration was found wanting.

            (ix)    Cases where consideration fails.

             (a)    Valuable consideration.

             (b)    Distinction between valuable consideration and good consideration.

             (c)    Consideration and motive.

             (d)    Moral consideration.

             (x)    Contract made in contravention of Article 299 of the Constitution.

            (xi)    Payment of damages by insurance company does not affect liability of the railway administration.

          (xii)    Damages for breach of contract.

         (xiii)    Special damages.

                 6.... Promises, express and implied.

              (i)    Express and implied promises.

            (ii)    Quantum merit.

                 7.... What agreement are contracts ?

              (i)    Claim for damages.

            (ii)    Contract in the terms of bill of lading.

           (iii)    Damages for breach of contract to deliver “frag”.

            (iv)    Contract for purchase of coal—Breach committed—Claim for damages.

             (v)    Mere letter of acceptance does not create any right.

            (vi)    Agreement to sale.

          (vii)    Contract.

                 8.... Who are competent to contract ?

               q -- Minor.

                 9.... Voidability of agreements without free consent

               q    Relief.

              10.... Agreement void where both parties are under mistake as to matter of fact.

               q    Compensation.

              11.... What considerations and objects are lawful, and whatnot ?

              (i)    Transactions based on illicit cohabitation.

            (ii)    Authority to enter into an agreement.

           (iii)    Breach of contract committed—Suit whether can be decreed ?

            (iv)    Principle.

             (v)    Interpretation.

            (vi)    Contract against public policy.

          (vii)    Transaction in securities—Validity of.

         (viii)    Perpetuity—Doctrine of.

            (ix)    Agreement of lease—Enforceability of.

              12.... Effect of refusal of party to perform promise wholly.

              (i)    Damages.

            (ii)    Repudiation of a new contract substituted in place of the old contract.

           (iii)    Arbitrator’s power to award damages and interest thereon.

              13.... Any one of joint promisors may be compelled to perform.

               q    Survivorship of joint rights and duties.

              14.... Effect of failure to perform at fixed time, in contract in which time is essential.

              (i)    Time as essence of contract.

            (ii)    Time for payment of the bills is not essence of contract.

           (iii)    Provision of.

            (iv)    Failure to perform at fixed time.

              15.... Agreement to do impossible act.

              (i)    Damages.

            (ii)    Paragraph 3 of the section.

           (iii)    Damages to goods caused due to failure of power supply—Defendant not liable for loss or damage caused to plaintiff.

            (iv)    “Leg non cogit ad impossibillia”—Meaning of.

             (v)    Specific performance—Relief of.

              16.... Effect of novation, rescission and alternation of contract.

              (i)    Damages.

            (ii)    Novation after breach.

           (iii)    Principle of novation.

            (iv)    Contract—Material alteration.

             (v)    Tender document—Alteration of.

              17.... Promise may dispense with or remit performance of promise.

              (i)    Damages.

            (ii)    Negligence by railway in carrying goods—Claim.

           (iii)    Accord and satisfaction.

              18.... Consequences of rescission of voidable contract.

               q    Restoration of benefit.

              19.... Obligation of person who has received advantage under void agreement, or contract that becomes void.

              (i)    Principle.

            (ii)    Applicability and scope.

           (iii)    Doctrine of pari delicto.

            (iv)    Contract unenforceable, equitable claim for compensation.

             (v)    Obligation arising under section 65.

            (vi)    Void contract.

              20.... Obligation of person enjoying benefit of non-gratuitous act.

              (i)    Application.

            (ii)    Principle laid down by the Supreme Court.

           (iii)    Measure of compensation under Section 70.

            (iv)    Compensation for work done.

             (v)    Basis of liability under Section 70.

            (vi)    Applicability.

              21.... Responsibility of finder of goods.

               q    Finder of goods.

              22.... Liability of person to whom money is paid or thing delivered by mistake or under coercion.

              (i)    Assessment and measure of damages.

            (ii)    Doctrine of “unjust enrichment”.

           (iii)    Liability.

            (iv)    Writ jurisdiction.

             (v)    Breach of contract by plaintiff/purchaser—Not entitled to damages.

              23.... Compensation for loss or damage caused by breach of contract.

              (i)    Different remedies for breach of contract.

            (ii)    Specific performance and injunction.

           (iii)    Measure of damages.

            (iv)    Breach of contract.

             (v)    Damages—Award of.

            (vi)    Basis of damages.

          (vii)    Contract for sale of goods.

         (viii)    Negligence.

            (ix)    Substantial damages.

             (x)    Discretion of appeal Court.

            (xi)    Proof.

          (xii)    Supreme Court on breach of contract.

         (xiii)    Promise to marry—Breach—Damages.

          (xiv)    Damages awarded—Power to award

           (xv)    Time is always essence of contract if the contract is relating to reconveyance of property.

          (xvi)    Damages and interest both.

        (xvii)    Quantum of damages—Determination of.

       (xviii)    Damages can be quantified only by way of compensation.

          (xix)    Consignment not delivered in time—Breach of contract—Damages.

           (xx)    Contract—Lapsing of.

          (xxi)    Contract—Breach of.

        (xxii)    Breach of warranty—Compensation.

              24.... Compensation for breach of contract where penalty stipulated for.

              (i)    English and Indian law.

            (ii)    Penalty and liquidated damages.

           (iii)    Exception.

            (iv)    Claim for damages.

             (v)    Scope of.

            (vi)    Application of the clause.

          (vii)    Remedies.

              25.... Party rightfully rescinding contract entitled to compensation.

               q .. Compensation.

              26.... Rights of indemnity holder when sued.

              (i)    Damages.

            (ii)    Costs.

           (iii)    No damages.

            (iv)    Injunction restraining encashment can be granted.

              27.... Bailor’s duty to disclose faults in goods bailed.

              (i)    Bailment—What constitutes ?

            (ii)    Damages due to non-disclosure.

              28.... Liability of bailee making unauthorised use of goods bailed.

               q .. Compensation to the bailor for any damage.

              29.... Effect of mixture, without bailor’s consent, when the goods can be separated.

               q    Damages.

              30.... Effect of mixture, without bailor’s consent, when the goods cannot be separated.

              (i)    Bailor is entitled to be compensated.

            (ii)    Compensation after loss of gold jewellery/ornaments kept in bank  locker.

              31.... Return of goods bailed on expiration of time or accomplishment of purpose.

               q    Damages.

              32.... Bailee’s responsibility when goods are not duly returned.

               q    Compensation for the use of article during the period of wrongful detention.

              33.... Right of finder of goods, may sue for specific reward offered.

               q    Right to sue the owner for compensation.

              34.... Pledge by person in possession under voidable contract.

               q    Whether pawnee or pledgee can claim benefit ?

              35.... Suit by bailor or bailee against wrong-doer.

              (i)    Suit by bailee.

            (ii)    Damages.

              36.... Apportionment of relief or compensation obtained by such suit.

               q    Compensation.

              37.... Extent of agent’s authority.

               q    Entitled to damages.

              38.... Agent’s authority in an emergency.

               q .. Damages as a result of selling goods.

              39.... When agent cannot delegate.

               q    Liability of principal or agent for default of a sub-agent.

              40.... Representation of principal by sub-agent properly appointed.

               q    Agent excluding personal liability.

              41.... Knowledge requisite for valid ratification.

               q    Liability for fraud.

              42.... Effect of ratifying unauthorised act forming part of transaction.

               q .. Claim  of damages.

              43.... Termination of agency.

              (i)    Compensation in equitable sense.

            (ii)    Revocation and renunciation of agency.

           (iii)    Measure of damages.

            (iv)    Termination of agency.

              44.... Compensation for revocation by principal or renunciation by agent.

              (i)    Compensation.

            (ii)    Sufficient cause.

              45.... Notice of revocation or renunciation.

              (i)    On the principle of natural justice.

            (ii)    Agency terminated without giving notice—Suit for damage.

              46.... Agent’s duty in conducting principal’s business.

              (i)    Liability of an agent.

            (ii)    Agent’s duty to follow instructions.

              47.... Skill and diligence required from agent.

               q    Compensation.

              48.... Principal’s right to benefit gained by agent dealing on his own account in business of agency.

               q    Liability of the agent on proper account.

              49.... Agent’s lien on principal’s property.

              (i)    Agent’s right of lien.

            (ii)    Sub-agent’s lien.

              50.... Agent to be indemnified against consequences of all lawful acts.

               q    Right of  agent to indemnify.

              51.... Non-liability of employer of agent to do a criminal act.

               q .. Scope.

              52.... Compensation to agent for injury caused by principal’s neglect.

               q    Compensation for injury.

              53.... Agent cannot personally enforce, nor be bound by, contracts on behalf of principal.

              (i)    Scope and applicability.

            (ii)    Contract to the contrary.

           (iii)    Protection to agent.

            (iv)    Award—Setting aside of.

              54.... Liability of pretended agent.

              (i)    Implied warranty.

            (ii)    Damages.

              55.... Liability of principal inducing belief that agent’s un-authorised acts were authorised.

              (i)    Applicability.

            (ii)    Liability.

           (iii)    Doctrine of apparent authority

              56.... Effect on agreement of mis-representation or fraud by agent.

              (i)    Principal’s right in case of misconduct of agent.

            (ii)    Liability of agents and principals.

chapter 5

Damages arising out of Sale of Goods

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Sale of Goods Act.

                 3.... Definitions

                 4.... Agreement to sell at valuation.

              (i)    Suit may be instituted for damages.

            (ii)    Intention of parties.

                 5.... Sale by description.

               q    Remedy of buyer.

                 6.... Instalment deliveries.

              (i)    Interpretation of clause (1).

            (ii)    Interpretation of clause (2).

           (iii)    Some rules.

                 7.... Delivery to carrier or wharfinger.

              (i)    Damages from effect to delivery to carrier or wharfinger.

            (ii)    Clause (3).

                 8.... Sale not generally rescinded by lien or stoppage in transit.

               q    Sale not generally rescinded by lien or stoppage in transit.

                 9.... Suit for price.

               q    Price—Suit for

              10.... Damages for non-acceptance

               q .. Seller’s remedies for damages.

              11.... Damages for non-delivery

              (i)    Damages for non-delivery.

            (ii)    Unliquidated damages to purchaser.

              12.... Specific performance.

              (i)    ‘Ascertained goods’.

            (ii)    Specific performance.

              13.... Remedy for breach of warranty.

               q .. Remedies as available for breach of warranty.

              14.... Repudiation of contract before due date.

              (i)    Anticipatory breach of contract.

            (ii)    Repudiates the contract.

           (iii)    Measure of damages in case of anticipatory breach.

              15.... Interest by way of damages and special damages.

              (i)    Interest by way of damages and special damages.

            (ii)    Interest as damages.

chapter 6

Damages arising out of Partnership

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Partnership Act.

            (A)    Definition.

             (B)    Definition of “partnership” “partner”, “firm” and “firm name”.

             (C)    Duty to indemnify for loss caused by fraud.

               q    Indemnity for loss and damage caused to firm by fraud of a partner.

            (D)    Mutual rights and liabilities

              (i)    Remuneration.

            (ii)    What share in profit and losses ?

           (iii)    Interest when payable ?

            (iv)    Right to indemnify.

             (v)    Indemnity for act done by partners in an emergency.

            (vi)    Indemnity of loss caused to firm by wilful neglect.

            (E)    Liability of a partner for Acts of the Firm.

               q    Liability of a partner for acts of the firm.

             (F)    Liability of the firm for wrongful acts of a partner.

              (i)    Liability of the firm for wrongful acts of a partner.

            (ii)    Case of insolvency against the firm.

           (iii)    Recovery of amount of goods—Suit for.

            (G)    Expulsion of a partner.

               q    Expulsion or banishment of a partner.

            (H)    Right to restrain from use of firm-name or firm-property.

               q    Right to restrain and prohibit from use of firm name or firm property.

             (I)    Effect  of non-registration.

              (i)    Effect of non-registration.

            (ii)    After the death of one partner, registration is not necessary.

           (iii)    Minor partner.

            (iv)    Damages for misconduct.

chapter 7

Compensation for violation of Fundamental Freedom and Human Rights

                 1.... Immunity of State for its sovereign acts.

                 2.... Sovereign and non-sovereign functions—Distinction between.

                 3.... Test for sovereign and non-sovereign functions.

                 4.... Change in concept of sovereign immunity.

                 5.... Abuse of power by public authorities.

                 6.... Negligent act of Government officials.

                 7.... Compensation—Concept of.

                 8.... Compensation—Object of.

                 9.... Claim in public law for compensation for unconstitutional deprivation of fundamental rights.

              10.... Quantum of compensation.

              11.... Illegal confinement and brutal torture on victim by R.D.O.—Compensation either by Court or Human Rights Commission.

              12.... Beating of village women—Violation of human rights—Compensation.

              13.... Use of third degree methods and torture by police.

              14.... Speedy trial and plea of financial constraints.

chapter 8

Compensation and Relief to Members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes against Atrocities

                 1.... Compensation and relief : How and by whom granted ?

                 2.... Compensation for forcing to drink or eat inedible or obnoxious substance.

                 3.... Compensation for causing injury, insult or annoyance.

                 4.... Compensation for derogatory acts.

                 5.... Compensation for wrongful occupations or cultivation of land etc.

                 6.... Compensation for dispossession of rights from any land, premises or water.

                 7.... Compensation for begar, forced or bonded labour.

                 8.... Intimidated not to vote—Compensation.

                 9.... Compensation for false, malicious or vexatious legal proceedings.

              10.... Harm due to false and frivolous information : Compensation.

              11.... Compensation for insult, intimidation and humiliation.

              12.... Compensation for outraged the modesty of a woman.

              13.... Compensation for sexual exploitation.

              14.... Compensation for fouling of water.

              15.... Compensation for denial of customary rights of passages.

              16.... Compensation on desertion of place of residence.

              17.... Harm sustained on false evidence : Compensation.

              18.... Compensation for offences committed, punishable with imprisonment of 10 years or more under Penal Code.

              19.... Compensation on victimisation at the hands of a public servant.

              20.... Compensation for causing disability.

             (a)    Where 100% incapacitation.

              (i)    Non-earning member of a family.

            (ii)    Earning member of a family.

             (b)    Where incapacitation is less than 100%

              21.... Compensation on murder.

             (a)    Non-earning member of a family.

             (b)    Earning member of a family.

              22.... Compensation for destructed or burnt houses.

chapter 9

Compensation in Motor Accident

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Motor Vehicles Act, 1988.

              (A)... Definitions

              (i)    Road Rollor.

            (ii)    Motor Vehicle.

           (iii)    Dumper.

            (iv)    Pay Loader.

              (B)... Liability to pay compensation in certain case on the principle of no fault.

              (i)    “Goods vehicle” and “Good Carriage”—Differentiation.

            (ii)    Ambit and object of.

              (C)... Provisions as to other right to claim compensation for death or permanent disablement.

              (D) .. Permanent disablement.

               (E)... Applicability of chapter to certain claims under Act 8 of 1923.

               (F)... Overriding effect.

              (i)    No fault liability—Purpose, ambit and scope.

            (ii) .. No fault liability—Retrospective effect—Applicability of—

           (iii)    No retrospective effect.

            (iv) .. Petition filed under section 140  M.V. Act, 1988 cannot be dismissed.

             (v)    Compensation on no fault liability directed to be paid.

            (vi)    Dependants have right to choose their remedy under either of two statutes.

          (vii)    No fault liability not negatived by wrongful act.

         (viii)    No fault liability—Different from strict liability.

            (ix)    No fault liability—Pillion rider—Liability of Insurance Company.

             (x)    No fault liability—Interim award—Merit.

            (xi)    No fault liability—Award of compensation.

          (xii)    No fault liability—Fixation of negligence.

         (xiii)    Interim relief to claimants.

          (xiv)    Interim award.

           (xv)    Interim award—Disbursement of.

          (xvi)    Interim compensation—Award of.

        (xvii)    No fault liability—Whether interim award or choice of forum ?

       (xviii) .. Alleged tractor was not in use however.

          (xix)    Factum of Insurance.

           (xx)    Question of existence or validity of, while passing the interim award.

          (xxi)    Interest.

        (xxii)    Simple fracture—Claimant is not entitled to compensation.

       (xxiii)    Interim compensation—Insurer’s liability.

        (xxiv)    Interim award passed—Liability of Insurance Company.

         (xxv)    Cover note.

        (xxvi)    Payment of interim award.

      (xxvii)    Duty of Tribunal to act suo motu.

     (xxviii)    Constitutional complexion.

        (xxix)    No dismissal of application of interim compensation.

         (xxx)    Condonation of delay.

        (xxxi)    Order rejecting claim on ground that accident occurred due to fault of driver, set aside—Interim compensation.

      (xxxii)    Nature of enquiry under section 140 is very limited—No burden on claimant.

     (xxxiii)    Enhancement of compensation applies after 14.11.1994.

      (xxxiv)    Interim compensation to be adjusted.

       (xxxv)    Appeal against interim award.

      (xxxvi)    Appeal—No fault liability—Interim award.

    (xxxvii)    Interim award—Revision—

                 (xxxviii)    Claims under ‘no fault liability’ shall be disposed of independently.

      (xxxix)    Whether appeal against interim award on no fault liability is maintainable.

            (xl)    Amount of interim compensation, payable by owner of the vehicle.

          (xli)    Death of driver an employee—Compensation either under Motor Vehicles Act or Workmen’s Compensation Act.

         (xlii)    Violation of terms and conditions of policy does not come in the way of allowing interim compensation.

        (xliii)    No fault liability—Objects and concept of.

        (xliv)    No fault liability—Scope of the provisions.

          (xlv)    No fault liability—Liability of Insurance Company.

        (xlvi)    No fault liability—Interim Compensation—Liability of.

       (xlvii)    No fault liability—Compensation.

      (xlviii)    Interim Compensation—Award of—No fault liability.

        (xlix)    Section 92-A of 1939 Act—Scope and applicability of.

              (l)    No fault liability—Award of Compensation.

              (G)... Special provisions as to compensation in case of hitmotor accident.

               q    Breach of contract—Compensation.

              (H)... Refund in certain cases of compensation paid under

               q    “Reasonable compensation”—Meaning of.

                (I)... Scheme for payment of compensation in cases of hit and run motor accidents.

solatium scheme, 1989

                (J)... Special provisions as to payment of compensation on structured formula basis.

              (K)... Option to file claim in certain cases.

               (L)... Power of Central Government to make rules.

              (i)    Special provision.

            (ii)    Provision for payment of compensation.

           (iii)    Whether only victim can get compensation from the Solatium Fund.

            (iv)    Principle laid down by Motor Vehicle (Amendment) Act, 1994 can be applied in even such cases which occurred prior to its enactment.

             (v)    Compensation to tempo driver killed by accused.

            (vi)    Section 163-A, Motor Vehicles Act permits even tortfeasor to claim compensation on  principle of no fault liability.

          (vii)    Limits of statutory liability deemed to have been extended or enlarged so as to cover liability that arises under Section 163-A.

         (viii)    Claim application—Maintainability of.

            (ix)    Compensation—Determination of.

             (x)    No fault liability—Compensation on structured formula.

            (xi)    Death of young person—Compensation—Structured formula.

          (xii)    Murder in looting process of motor cycle—No ground for compensation.

             (M)... Application for compensation.

              (i)    Limitation Act, 1963 does not apply.

            (ii)    Claim application dismissed—Restoration of.

           (iii)    Claim petition filed after six years—Whether time barred ?

            (iv)    Whether C.P.C. applies or not ?

             (v)    To lead evidence.

            (vi)    Who can claim compensation ?

          (vii)    Application for compensation may be filed by an agent duly authorised.

         (viii)    Claims by legal representatives.

            (ix)    Dependants have right to choose their remedy under either of the two statutes.

             (x)    Claims arising out of composite negligence.

            (xi)    Amendment of application.

          (xii)    Filing of petition by a duly authorised agent.

         (xiii)    Kinds of damages.

          (xiv)    M.V. Act and the W.C. Act.

           (xv)    Word “death” applicable in interpretation of Motor Vehicles Act.

          (xvi)    Passengers murdered autorickshaw driver—Compensation.

        (xvii)    Applicant died during pendency of proceedings.

       (xviii)    Word “or both” used.

          (xix)    Jurisdiction of Claims Tribunal.

           (xx)    Notice under section 80, C.P.C.

          (xxi)    Transfer.

        (xxii)    Concurrent jurisdiction.

       (xxiii)    Where Claims Tribunal directs to return petition as copies of FIR are not legible.

        (xxiv)    Applicant, owner of tractor that was damaged in accident by offending bus.

         (xxv)    Negligence—No finding about.

        (xxvi)    Negligence—Lack of co-ordination between driver and conductor.

      (xxvii)    Contributory negligence—Determination of.

     (xxviii)    Contributory negligence—Presumption of

        (xxix)    Plea of contributory negligence—Whethersustainable ?

         (xxx)    Claim application—Non-impleadment of owner of vehicle—Effect of.

        (xxxi)    Appeal for enhancement of compensation.

      (xxxii)    Enhanced compensation—Claimed for medical treatment—Bar of.

     (xxxiii)    Enhanced compensation—Claimed in amended petition not barred by limitation.

      (xxxiv)    Compensation—Appeal for enhancement—Earning potentiality.

       (xxxv)    Recurring compensation—Award of.

      (xxxvi)    Res ipsa loquiter—Applicability.

    (xxxvii)    Deposit of awarded amount in fixed deposit—Justification—Principles and procedure for withdrawal.

(xxxviii) Quantum of compensation.

      (xxxix)    Offending vehicle—Involvement of.

            (xl)    Multiplier—Whether proper ?

          (xli)    Motor accident—Quantum of compensation.

         (xlii)    Claim application—Dismissal of.

        (xliii)    Claim application—Dismissal as barred by limitation.

        (xliv)    Claim application—Sought exemption from Court fee.

          (xlv)    Claim application—Choice of Forum.

        (xlvi)    Claim by brothers—Not maintainable.

       (xlvii)    Death of student aged 22 years—Compensation, determination of.

      (xlviii)    Negligence.

        (xlix)    Composite negligence—Apportionment of inter se liability.

              (l)    Contributory negligence—Apportionment of.

            (li)    Contributory negligence—Three persons travelled on a motor cycle.

           (lii)    Contributory negligence—Burden of proof.

          (liii)    Delay of 3-1/2 months—Condonation of.

          (liv)    Compensation—Enhancement of.

            (lv)    Rash and negligent driving—Proof of.

          (lvi)    Expression “claimant resides”—Means.

         (lvii)    Claim petition filed under Sections 163-A and 166 separately—Scope of.

              (N)... Claims Tribunals.

               q    Claim Tribunal—Duty of.

              (O)... Bar on jurisdiction of civil Courts.

              (i)    Where to file application for compensation ?.

            (ii)    Constitution of Claims Tribunal and bar on jurisdiction of civil Courts.

           (iii)    Generous compensation.

            (iv)    Claims Tribunal—Jurisdiction of.

             (v)    “Use”—Meaning of.

            (vi)    Constitution of Claims Tribunal by State.

          (vii)    Transfer of case from Claims Tribunal under C.P.C.

         (viii)    Subordinate to High Court.

            (ix)    Jurisdiction of Claims Tribunal in types of claims.

             (x)    Application of section 53, E.S.I. Act.

               (P)... Option regarding claims for compensation in certain cases.

              (i)    Object.

            (ii)    Compensation can be claimed under one Act.

           (iii)    Choice of forum.

            (iv)    Compensation claim before Commissioner under the M.V. Act and the W.C. Act.

             (v)    Option of claimant to claim.

            (vi)    Claimant preferring claim for compensation under Motor Vehicles Act is debarred from claiming compensation under Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923.

          (vii)    No twice gain.

         (viii)    Table under W.C. Act, for award of compensation not applicable to claim under Section 163-A.

            (ix)    Accident happened on railway crossing.

              (Q)... Procedure and powers of Claims Tribunals.

              (i)    Provisions.

            (ii)    Inherent powers.

           (iii)    Fundamental principle.

            (iv)    Abatement and substitution of legal respresentative.

             (v)    Amendment of claim application filed.

            (vi)    Eye witness.

          (vii)    No new plea can be taken.

         (viii)    Examination of witness.

            (ix)    Negligence.

             (x)    Claim application filed.

            (xi)    Proof of negligence

          (xii)    Supreme Court on the principle of res ipsa loquitur.

         (xiii)    Claims Tribunal’s power.

          (xiv)    Accident due to bomb blast.

           (xv)    Driver’s duty.

          (xvi)    Jeep driver killed by Manipur Rifles—Compensation.

        (xvii)    Duty of Care—Whether act of God?.

       (xviii)    Roadworthy condition.

          (xix)    Contributory negligence.

           (xx)    Res ipsa loquitur.

          (xxi)    Plea of inevitable accident.

        (xxii)    Doctrine of imputation.

       (xxiii)    Last opportunity.

        (xxiv)    Vicarious liability.

         (xxv)    Volenti non fit injuria.

        (xxvi)    Claim Tribunal—Jurisdiction of.

      (xxvii)    Claim for injury—Decision on each and every issue.

insurance of motor vehicles against third party risks

              (R)... Definitions

               (S)... Necessity for insurance against third party risk.

              (i)    Compulsory insurance.

            (ii)    Scope and object.

           (iii)    Compensation—Maintenance of fund.

            (iv)    “Third party”—Meaning of.

             (v)    Owner not getting insured against third party risks.

            (vi)    Third party risks—Liability of insurance company.

          (vii)    Reducing seating capacity.

               (T)... Requirements of policies and limits of liability.

              (U)... Validity of policies of insurance issued in reciprocating countries.

              (V)... Duty of insurers to satisfy judgments and awards against persons insured in respect of third party risks.

              (i)    Comprehensive policy of insurance.

            (ii)    Liability of Insurance Company.

           (iii)    No liability of Insurance Co. due to no valid transfer.

            (iv)    Where  Policy not transferred in name of transferee of vehicle—Liability of Insurance Company.

             (v)    Retrospective effect—Liability of Insurance Co.

            (vi)    Policy of Insurance is best guide.

          (vii)    Extent of liability.

         (viii)    Limited liability proved by Insurance Company.

            (ix)    Liability of Insurer.

             (x)    Liability of Insurer in absence of policy—Insurer not liable.

            (xi)    Liability of Insurer under sections 147 and 149 of the M.V. Act.

          (xii)    Gratuitous passengers’ liability.

         (xiii)    Burden of Proof.

          (xiv)    Accident caused by a learner.

           (xv)    Vehicle driven by person who is not duly licenced.

          (xvi)    Liquor taken by driver.

        (xvii)    Driving by cleaner.

       (xviii)    Owner of vehicle held liable.

          (xix)    Damages to property—Whose liable ?

           (xx)    Damage to property of third party.

          (xxi)    Accident caused by such a person who was having no driving licence.

        (xxii)    Vicarious liability.

       (xxiii)    Transfer of certificate.

        (xxiv)    Scope of section 149 of the Act—Defence raised in proceeding by Insurer.

         (xxv)    Vicarious liability of State.

        (xxvi)    Statutory Insurance—Whether gratuitous passenger entitled to insurance coverage under the oldAct ?

      (xxvii)    “Arising out of use of vehicle”—Connotation of.

     (xxviii)    Claim for compensation—Liability of insurer.

        (xxix)    Insurance Company—Liability of.

         (xxx)    Damage to property—Extent of limits of Insurance Company.

        (xxxi)    Act policy—Liability of insurer.

      (xxxii)    “Person and any passenger”.

     (xxxiii)    Motor Insurance Policy—Breach of terms—Liability of Insurance Company.

      (xxxiv)    Goods carriage—Passenger—Extent of liability of Insurance Company.

       (xxxv)    Gratuitous passenger—Good vehicle—Liability of insurer.

      (xxxvi)    Goods vehicle and Goods Carriage—Liability of Insurance Company.

    (xxxvii)    Effect of 1988 and 1939 Acts—Liability of Insurance Company.

(xxxviii) Passenger risk—Liability of Insurance Company.

      (xxxix)    “Any person” or “passenger”—Meaning, scope and liability of.

            (xl)    Driver held licence to drive light motor vehicle—Liability of insurer.

          (xli)    Gratuitous passenger—Liability of Insurance Company.

         (xlii)    Public place—Liability of Insurance Company.

        (xliii)    Insurance policy—Commencement of.

        (xliv)    Motor Insurance Policy—Violation of terms and conditions—Liability of Insurance Company.

          (xlv)    Death of hirer of truck—Liability of Insurance Company.

        (xlvi)    Defence of driver not holding valid licence not available to Insurance Company.

       (xlvii)    Appeal and joint appeal—Scope and applicability of Section 149.

      (xlviii)    Third party victim—Statutory liability of insurer.

        (xlix)    Repudiation of claim—Plea, driver not having valid driving licence.

              (l)    Third party risk—Liability of Insurance Company.

            (li)    Motor Insurance Policy—Cancellation of.

           (lii)    Motor insurance policy—Violation of terms and conditions—Liability of.

          (liii)    Non-production of policy—Effect.

          (liv)    Limited liability of Insurance Company.

            (lv)    Assessment of compensation.

          (lvi)    Assessment of compensation in fatal motor accident cases.

         (lvii)    Multiplier method.

        (lviii)    Principle of Multiplier.

          (lix)    Safeguard the interest of beneficiaries—Guidelines.

            (lx)    Just compensation—Principles of.

          (lxi)    Just compensation—Quantum of—Appeal for enhancement.

         (lxii)    Just compensation—Assessment by Lok Adalat of High Court—Whether sustainable ?

        (lxiii)    Quantum of just compensation.

        (lxiv)    Assessment of compensation in injury cases.

          (lxv)    Assessment of compensation for damages to property.

        (lxvi)    Expression “third party”.

       (lxvii)    Burden to prove that licence was false and not genuine lies on insurer.

      (lxviii)    Gratuitous passenger—Liability of Insurance Company.

        (lxix)    Policy conditions violated—Insurers liability.

          (lxx)    Insurance policy—Violation of conditions—Liability.

        (lxxi)    Policy conditions violated—Insurer's liability.

       (lxxii)    Compensation with 30% penalty—Liability of.

      (lxxiii)    Insurer's liability cannot restricted.­—

      (lxxiv)    Driving licence—Valid—Onus of proof.

        (lxxv)    Murder inside vehicle—Liability of Insurance Company.

      (lxxvi)    Concealment of factum of incident—Liability of Insurance Company.

     (lxxvii)    Compensation—Liability upon.

    (lxxviii)    Insurer’s liability—Prior to Amendment of 1994.

      (lxxix)    Fault and not fault liability—Compensation under both—Whether deduction under fault liability, permissible ?

        (lxxx)    Insurance Company—Liability of.

      (lxxxi)    Cover note disputed—Liability of insurer.

     (lxxxii)    Liability of Insurance Company—Drivers licence found to be fake.

      (lxxiii)    Pillion rider—Liability of Insurance Company.

             (W)... Right of third parties against insurers on insolvency of the insured.

              (X)... Duty to give information as to insurance.

              (Y)... Settlement between insurers and insured person.

               (Z)... Saving in respect of sections 150, 151 and 152.

            (ZA)... Insolvency of insured persons not to affect liability of insured or claims by third parties.

            (ZB)... Effect of death on certain causes of action.

            (ZC)... Effect of certificate of insurance.

            (ZD)... Transfer of certificate of insurance.

            (ZE)... Production of certain certificates, licence and permit in certain cases.

            (ZF)... Production of certificate of insurance on application for authority to use vehicle.

            (ZG)... Award of the Claims Tribunal.

              (i)    How to record judgment and make an award ?

            (ii)    Claims Tribunal to give finding on all issues.

           (iii)    “Just compensation”.

            (iv)    Determination of compensation amount.

             (v)    Compensation not more than claimed

            (vi)    No strict rules of pleadings in claim petition.

          (vii)    Judgment and award.

         (viii)    Res judicata.

            (ix)    Evaluation of Evidence.

             (x)    In case of personal injury—Separate assessment

            (xi)    Apportionment of liability to be paid compensation.

          (xii)    Award of claim Tribunal—Vicarious liability.

         (xiii)    Proof of—Negligence of driver.

          (xiv)    Motor accident—Compensation.

           (xv)    Compensation—Must be “just” and not be a “bonanza”.

          (xvi)    Motor accident—Personal injury.

        (xvii)    Motor accident—Compensation—Determination of loss of income.

       (xviii)    Compensation—Computation of.

          (xix)    Deceased an agriculturist—Compensation—Determination of.

           (xx)    Compensation amount—Release of.

          (xxi)    Negligence of driver—Proof.

        (xxii)    Gratuitous passengers—Goods vehicles—Liability of Insurance Company.

       (xxiii)    Death of cyclists by hit from behind by Jeep—Quantum of compensation.

        (xxiv)    Remarriage of widow—Denial of compensation.

         (xxv)    No fault liability—Just compensation—Determination of.

        (xxvi)    Tribunal should issue payment.

      (xxvii)    Claims to be decided expeditiously.

     (xxviii)    Even under no fault liability compensation is up to Rs. 50,000 under the provisions of the Act.

        (xxix)    Speed of 30-40 k.m. of motor vehicle—Relevancy.

         (xxx)    Determination theory.

        (xxxi)    Quantum of compensation.

      (xxxii)    Additional amount.

     (xxxiii)    Doctrine of res ipsa loquitur cannot be applied.

      (xxxiv)    Death of bread winner who draw salary Rs. 4,000 p.m. Compensation amount.

       (xxxv)    Enhancement of compensation—Defence regarding.

      (xxxvi)    Direction to release awarded amount to be kept in fixed deposit.

    (xxxvii)    Withholding of amount of compensation by Insurance Company—Compromise before Lok Adalat.

(xxxviii) Permanent total disablement.

      (xxxix)    Compensation—Transferor of vehicle—When liable ?

            (xl)    Bodily injury—Compensation.

          (xli)    Pain, sufferings and loss of amenities of life—Compensation.

         (xlii)    Compensation—Withdrawal of.

        (xliii)    Compensation—Enhancement of.

        (xliv)    Contributory negligence—Plea of.

          (xlv)    Negligence—Contribution by appellant.

        (xlvi)    Compensation—Assessment of on the ground of futrue income.

       (xlvii)    Compensation—On the basis of income and dependency—Whether proper ?

      (xlviii)    Tribunal awarded more compensation than claimed—Whether justified ?

           (ZH)... Award of interest where any claim is allowed.

              (i)    Principle.

            (ii)    Interest.

           (iii)    Claim of injury—Interest on awarded amount.

            (iv)    Claim petition decided after 8 years—Interest—Award of.

             (v)    Interest—Rate of.

            (vi)    Due to latches on the part of claimant.

          (vii)    Liability of interest.

         (viii)    Award of interest—Discretion of Tribunal.

            (ix)    Pleading is not necessary to grant interest.

             (x)    Higher rate of compensation if not paid in specified time.

            (xi)    Interest due to delay in disposal of claim before Tribunal.

          (xii)    Award of Interest—From which date ?

         (xiii)    Rate of interest—Discretion of Tribunal or High Court.

          (xiv)    Interest on compensation—Enhancement.

           (xv)    Amount of compensation—Compromised in Lok Adalat—Claim of interest.

             (ZI)... Award of compensatory costs in certain cases.

               q    Award of compensatory costs.

             (ZJ)... Appeals.

              (i)    Appeal without leave.

            (ii)    Appeal by insurer on what ground ?.

           (iii)    Appeal not survived.

            (iv)    Appeal against interlocutory orders.

             (v)    Condonation of delay.

            (vi)    Limitation.

          (vii)    Delay in filing appeal.

         (viii)    Additional evidence in appeal.

            (ix)    No interference.

             (x)    Revision.

            (xi)    Whether enhancement cannot be ordered without notice to owner/driver of offending vehicle.

          (xii)    Interim order.

         (xiii)    Precedent.

          (xiv)    No appeal or revision.

           (xv)    Non-pecuniary loss—No compensation for—Compensation enhanced.

          (xvi)    Quantum of compensation—Reduction of—Whether justified ?

        (xvii)    Compensation—Quantum of—Challenged.

       (xviii)    Appeal for enhancement of compensation.

          (xix)    Compensation—Enhancement of.

           (xx)    Third party risk—Liability of insurer.

          (xxi)    Delay of 1625 days—No sufficient cause explained—Condonation not granted.

        (xxii)    Quantum of compensation—Rights of Insurance Company to challenge.

       (xxiii)    Appeal by Insurance Company—Maintainability of.

        (xxiv)    Insurer challenged quantum of compensation—Maintainability of.

         (xxv)    Insurance Company—Right of appeal.

           (ZK)... Recovery of money from insurer as arrear of land revenue.

              (i)    Scope of the section.

            (ii)    Execution—Rules made by State Government under Section 176 conferring powers of civil Court under CPC on Tribunal is valid

           (iii)    Section 176 of the M.V. Act 1988.

                    ... the motor accidents claims tribunal rules

the andhra pradesh motor vehicles

assam motor accident claims tribunal ruleS, 1960

the bihar motor vehicles accidents claims tribunals rules, 1961

the bihar motor vehicles rules, 1992

delhi motor vehicles rules, 1993

The Gujarat Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989

haryana motor vehicles rules, 1993

the karnataka motor vehicles rules, 1989

kerala motor vehicles rules, 1989

the maharasHtra motor vehicles rules, 1989

The orissa motor vehicles (accidents claims tribunals) rules, 1960

the Punjab motor vehicles rules, 1989

Motor Accidents Claims Tribunal

tamil nadu motor vehicles accidents

claimS tribunal rules, 1989

u.p. motor accidents claims tribunal rules, 1967

west Bengal motor vehicles rules, 1989

model forms

chapter 10

Compensation under theWorkmen’s Compensation Act, 1923

                 1.... Definitions.

              (i)    “Workman”.

            (ii)    “Workmen”—Determination of.

           (iii)    Parents—Whether dependent ?

            (iv)    Daily wager electrician—Whether workman ?

             (v)    Total disablement—Ambit and scope of.

                 2.... Employer’s liability for compensation.

              (i)    Scope.

            (ii)    “Accident arising out of and in the course of employment”—Meaning of.

           (iii)    Death of workman—Due to natural calamity.

            (iv)    Compensation—Choice of forum.

             (v)    “Accident”—Meaning of.

            (vi)    Interim compensation.

          (vii)    Driver and cleaner killed by miscreants committing dacoity.

         (viii)    "May claim compensation"—In M.V. Act and W.C. Act.

            (ix)    Word “death” applicable in M.V. Act and W.C. Act both.

             (x)    Passengers murdered auto rickshaw driver—Compensation.

            (xi)    Wilful disobedience—Onus to prove.

          (xii)    Quantum of just compensation.

                 3.... Amount of compensation.

              (i)    Compensation—How to be calculated ?

            (ii)    Disablement.

           (iii)    Claim for compensation.

            (iv)    Determination of compensation.

             (v)    Non-Scheduled injury—Assessment of compensation.

            (vi)    Disability—Kinds of.

          (vii)    Claim petition filed by injured workman—Withdrawal of, obtained by playing fraud.

         (viii)    Assessment of compensation—Whether amended provisions of 1995 applicable.

            (ix)    Lump-sum compensation—Deduction of leave salary from half monthly payments.

             (x)    Unscheduled injury—Compensation.

            (xi)    Percentage of disability—Assessment by Workmen Compensation Commissioner.

          (xii)    Compensation—Relevant date for determination.

                 4.... Compensation to be paid when due and penalty for default.

              (i)    When amount of compensation becomes due ?

            (ii)    Amount of penalty.

           (iii)    Compensation should be paid soon.

            (iv)    Penalty—Imposition of—When ?

             (v)    Interest and penalty.

            (vi)    12% Interest—Payment of, whether mandatory ?

          (vii)    No interest awarded—Appeal.

                 5.... Method of calculating wages.

              (i)    Amendment and Repeal.

            (A)    “Amendment”.

             (a)    Hostile amendment.

             (b)    Killer amendment.

             (c)    Perfecting amendment.

             (d)    Substitute amendment.

            (B)    “Repeal”.

             (a)    Express repeal.

             (b)    Implied repeal.

            (ii)    Determination of rate.

           (iii)    Income of the deceased to be proved by the claimant.

                 6.... Review.

                 7.... Commutation of half-monthly payments.

               q    Interpretation.

                 8.... Distribution of compensation.

              (i)    Requirement.

            (ii)    Compensation—Distribution of, to dependants.

                 9.... Compensation not to be assigned, attached or charged.

              10.... Notice and Claim.

              (i)    Commissioner to condone delay.

            (ii)    Commissioner is competent to decide.

              11.... Power to require from employer’s statements regarding fatal accidents.

              12.... Reports of fatal accidents and serious bodily injuries.

               q    Explanation.

              13.... Medical examination.

              14.... Contracting.

              (i)    Interpretation.

            (ii)    Trade or business.

           (iii)    Compensation—Liability of.

            (iv)    Liability of principal employer.

              15.... Remedies of employer against stranger.

              (i)    Interpretation.

            (ii)    Commissioner.

              16.... Insolvency of employer.

              17.... Compensation to be first charge on assets transferred by employer.

               q    Statutory first charge.

              18.... Special provisions relating to masters and seamen.

              19.... Special provisions relating to captains and other members of crew of air craft.

              20.... Special provisions relating to workmen abroad of companies and motor vehicles.

              21.... Returns as to compensation.

              22.... Contracting out.

              23.... Penalties.

              (i)    Penalty—When bad.

            (ii)    “Punishable’’—Means.

           (iii)    Proviso.

chapter 11

Compensation under the Fatal Accidents Act, 1855

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Preamble.

               q    Interpretation.

                 3.... Short title and extent.

                 4.... Suit for compensation to the family of a person for loss occasioned to it by his death by actionable wrong.

              (i)    Claim for compensation.

            (ii)    “Representative”—Meaning of.

           (iii)    Adjudication of claim as Commissioner by District Judge—Improper.

            (iv)    Two grounds for seeking compensation.

             (v)    “Child”—Meaning of.

            (vi)    Compensation—Manner of computation.

          (vii)    Fatal Accidents Act—Nature of.

         (viii)    Who may institute a suit ?.

            (ix)    Whether section 1-A of the Act prevail against sections 140 and 168 of the M.V. Act 1988.

             (x)    Two provisions.

            (xi)    Fatal accident—Assessment of compensation under Sections 140, M.V. Act, 1988.

          (xii)    Negligence or not—Accident caused by Truck—Catched fire—Whether maxim res ipsa loquitur applicable.

         (xiii)    No compensation provided.

          (xiv)    Compensation’s circular of Electricity Board—Effect of.

           (xv)    No compensation provided for physical disability.

          (xvi)    Torts due to negligence—Overhead electric wires maintained negligently—Sparks causing fire underneath grass—Melting of wires resulting electrocution of persons—Breaking of  wires earlier—Whether maxim res  ipsa loquitur  attracted—Authorities, held, guilty of negligence.

        (xvii)    Civil Procedure Code 1908, Section 151—Inherent power of the Court.

       (xviii)    Compensation from murderer under the Act.

          (xix)    Limitation for the suit.

           (xx)    Exclusion of statutory period of notice.

          (xxi)    Burden of proof.

        (xxii)    Principle of res ipsa loquitur.

       (xxiii)    Deceased 40 years old died in explosion—Principle of loss and gain.

        (xxiv)    District Judge—Powers of.

                 5.... Not more than one suit to be brought.

              (i)    Provisions of the F.A. Act and the M.V. Act.

            (ii)    Assessment of damages—Principles stated.

           (iii)    Assessment of compensation—Method of calculation.

            (iv)    Award of compensation—Guidelines.

             (v)    Multiplier Method.

            (vi)    Loss of estate and loss of dependency.

          (vii)    Damages—Loss to the estate.

         (viii)    Deduction for lump-sum payment and uncertainties of life.

            (ix)    No deduction for lump-sum payment.

             (x)    Attachment of awarded compensation.

                 6.... Plaintiff shall deliver particulars, etc.

               q    Omission to mention.

                 7.... Interpretation clause.

chapter 12

Compensation under Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948

                 1.... Employees’ State Insurance Act—Object and Reasons.

                 2.... Employees’ State Insurance Act—Not to apply in certain cases.

                 3.... Legislative changes.

              (i)    Amending Act 43 of 1951.

            (ii)    Amending Act 44 of 1966.

           (iii)    Amending Act 38 of 1975.

                 4.... Employees’ State Insurance Act—Interpretation of.

                 5.... Employment injury.

               q    “Employment injury”—Well-accepted principle.

                 6.... Factory.

              (i)    Factory—Meaning of

            (ii)    Factory run by partnership.

                 7.... Determination of contribution in certain cases.

                 8.... Recovery of contributions.

              (i)    Reasonable opportunity should be rendered.

            (ii)    Section 45-B being procedural is retrospective.

           (iii)    Objection may be raised.

            (iv)    Contribution.

             (v)    Payment of contribution.

            (vi)    Claim disputed by the employer.

                 9.... Bar against receiving or recovery of compensation or damages under any other law.

              10.... Bar of benefits under other enactments.

              (i)    No Bar.

            (ii)    Bar against claiming compensation under any other Act by employee.

              11.... Matter to be decided by Employees’ Insurance Court

              (i)    Interpretation.

            (ii)    Jurisdiction.

              12.... Power to recover damages.

              (i)    Principle of natural justice.

            (ii)    Damages and interest for delayed payment—Whether valid.

              13.... Prosecution.

              14.... Benefits.

              15.... Sickness benefit.

              16.... Maternity benefit.

              17.... Disablement benefit.

              18.... Dependant’s benefit.

              19.... Occupational disease.

              20.... Review of dependant’s benefit.

              21.... Medical benefit.

              (i)    Accidents—Principle laid down.

            (ii)    Where a workman on his way to work was murdered.

           (iii)    Injury out of and in course of employment.

chapter 13

Compensation under the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991

(A) The public liability Insurance Act, 1991

                 1.... Public Liability Insurance Act—Preamble.

                 2.... Public Insurance Liability Act—Statement of Objects and Reasons.

              (i)    Principle.

            (ii)    Construction of statute and section.

           (iii)    Principle “Generalia specialibus non derogant”.

                 3.... Short title and commencement.

                 4.... Definitions.

                 5.... Liability to give relief in certain cases on principle of no fault.

              (i)    Explanation of the term “brand name” or “trade name”.

            (ii)    Principle of strict liability.

           (iii)    Death due to hazardous substance—Electricity.

                 6.... Duty of owner to take out insurance policies.

                 7.... Verification and publication of accident by Collector.

                 8.... Application for claim for relief.

                 9.... Award of relief.

               q    First report whether civil or criminal in nature.

              10.... Establishment of Environmental Relief Fund.

              11.... Provisions as to other right to claim compensation for death, etc.

              12.... Power to call for information.

              13.... Power of entry and inspection.

              14.... Power of search and seizure.

              15.... Power to give directions.

              16.... Power to make application to courts for restraining owner from handling hazardous substance.

              17.... Penalty for contravention of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) or sub-section (2-A) or sub-section (2-C) of section 4 or failure to comply with directions under section 12.

              18.... Penalty for failure to comply with direction under section 9 or order under section 11 or obstructing any person in discharge of his functions under section 10 or section 11.

              19.... Offences by companies.

              20.... Offences by Government Departments.

              21.... Cognizance of offences.

              22.... Power to delegate.

              23.... Protection of action taken in good faith.

              24.... Advisory committee.

              25.... Effect of other laws.

              26.... Power to make rules.

(B) The public liability Insurance Rules, 1991

                 1.... Short title and commencement.

                 2.... Definitions.

                 3.... Application for relief.

                 4.... Documents that may be required.

                 5.... Powers of Collector.

                 6.... Establishment and administration of fund.

                 7.... Miscellaneous.

                 8.... Directions.

                 9.... Manner of giving notice.

              10.... Extent of liability.

              11.... Contribution of owner to the Environmental Relief Fund.

chapter 14

Compensation under Civil Procedure Code and Criminal Procedure Code

                 1.... Compensation under Civil Procedure Code.

                 2.... Compensation for obtaining arrest, attachment or injunction on insufficient grounds.

              (i)    Compensation.

            (ii)    Interest on compensation.

                 3.... Compensation under Criminal Procedure Code.

                 4.... Compensation for accusation without reasonable cause.

              (i)    Delay in registration of FIR—Compensation for.

            (ii)    Informant and complainant only can be responsible for compensation.

           (iii)    Police Officer submitting a charge-sheet is not liable for any compensation.

            (iv)    Shall record the grounds.

             (v)    Power of revisional courts against order for compensation.

            (vi)    No exemption from civil or criminal liability in complaint.

                 5.... Order to pay compensation.

              (i)    Object.

            (ii)    Compensation and sentence.

           (iii)    Court has power to award compensation is not ancillary.

            (iv)    Compensation to widow of the deceased.

             (v)    Compensation awarded would be taken in account in any subsequent suit.

            (vi)    Compensation—Jurisdiction of criminal Courts.

          (vii)    Compensation awarded to the injured party.

         (viii)    Sentence—Compensation awarded.

            (ix)    Compensation to victim of offence.

             (x)    Interim compensation impermissible.

            (xi)    Compensation to victim—Quantum of.

                 6.... Compensation to persons groundlessly arrested.

              (i)    False indulgence by detenues—Compensation refused.

            (ii)    Compensation by guilty police officers.

chapter 15

Compensation under the Constitution of India

                 1.... Introduction

                 2.... Protection of life and personal liberty.

                 3.... Remedies for enforcement of rights as conferred by this Part.

                 4.... Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.

              (i)    Significance.

             (a)    General.

             (b)    Genesis of concept of State liability.

             (c)    Tortuous liability of the State before 1947.

             (d)    Tortuous liability of State after independence of India.

             (e)    Violation of Fundamental Freedoms and Human Rights—Writ for compensation.

              (f)    Change in the concept of sovereignty—A new approach.

            (ii)    Compensation due to detention unauthorisedly.

           (iii)    Illegal detention—Grant of damages—Unjustified.

            (iv)    Electrocution—Liability of Electricity Board.

             (v)    Irregular procedure adopted by police—Death in police station—Compensation.

            (vi)    Torture by police authorities—Compensation.

          (vii)    Custodial death—Compensation.

         (viii)    Petition for compensation.

            (ix)    Writ petition filed with delay and interim relief also not pressed.

             (x)    Compensation in proceedings for enforcement of fundamental rights cannot be claimed directly by way of writ petition.

            (xi)    Wrongful confinement—Compensation.

          (xii)    Monetary compensation and exemplary cost in mischievous arrest.

         (xiii)    Compensation to victim for handcuffing.

          (xiv)    Compensation to victim of crime.

           (xv)    Compensation—Liability of polluting industries.

          (xvi)    Jeep driver killed by Manipur rifles—Compensation allowed.

        (xvii)    Writ for compensation.

             (a)    Uncovered  manhole—Death of child

             (b)    Government is liable to pay compensation to deceased’s parents

             (c)    Compensation—Due to defective question book, examinee lost self- control.

             (d)    Non-transfer of ownership State employees not efficient.

             (e)    Scheme to pay compensation for failed wells and bore-wells dug through loan.

              (f)    Sacrifice of life of a citizen in apprehending criminals—Compensation to his widow.

       (xviii)    Fundamental principle.

          (xix)    Calculation made as per formula laid down by the Supreme Court.

           (xx)    Compensation—Gunshot fired recklessly by policeman—Death of young man.

          (xxi)    Custodial death—Compensation.

        (xxii)    Deceased shot dead in army custody—Compensation.

       (xxiii)    Medical negligence—Claim for damages—Choice of Forum.

        (xxiv)    Murder by extremists—Payment of adequate compensation.

         (xxv)    Compensation—Death of Air Force Pilot Trainee in accident.

        (xxvi)    Custodial death—Just and fair compensation.

      (xxvii)    Death due to electrocution—Liability to pay compensation.

     (xxviii)    Death due to electrocution—Quantum of compensation.

                 5.... Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery etc.

               q    Compensation due to illegal detention—When accused detained and falsely charged with possessing illegal arms

chapter 16

compensation under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Finding of the District Forums.

                 3.... Dismissal of frivolous or vexatious complaints.

                 4.... Deficiency in various services—Compensation

              (i)    Deficiency in telephone service.

            (ii)    Deficiency in medical service.

           (iii)    Ampoule of Injection—Not fit for human consumption—Complainant entitled to compensation.

            (iv)    Compensation for negligence causing physical pain and mental anguish.

             (v)    Contaminated syrup—Compensation to complainant.

            (vi)    Actionable negligence is prescribing wrong medicine.

          (vii)    Default in supply of medicine by attendant—Liability for compensation.

         (viii)    Performance of second operation without consent—Liable for compensation.

            (ix)    By-pass surgery—Deficiency in service.

             (x)    Medical treatment in private hospital—Compensation.

            (xi)    Free treatment—No compensation awarded.

          (xii)    Foreign substance left inside the body—Damages.

         (xiii)    Compensation for injuries sustained in fatal accident.

          (xiv)    Compensation from Housing Board.

           (xv)    Compensation : If deficiency in service.

          (xvi)    Railway—Deficiency in service—Compensation.

        (xvii)    Commercial complex.

       (xviii)    Supply of goods.

          (xix)    Extra amount charged by dealer—Deficiency in service.

           (xx)    Banking.

          (xxi)    Cheque wrongly dishonoured—Compensation.

        (xxii)    Payment delayed because of time taken by RBI—No deficiency.

       (xxiii)    Electricity failure—Compensation.

        (xxiv)    Interim Order.

         (xxv)    Claim of insurance.

        (xxvi)    Claim by Insurance company.

      (xxvii)    Order of State Commission awarding compensation.

     (xxviii)    Motor Vehicles.

        (xxix)    Dispute regarding telephone services.

         (xxx)    Compensation against strike.

        (xxxi)    Medical service.

      (xxxii)    Frivolous or vexatious complaint.

     (xxxiii)    Absence of evidence.

      (xxxiv)    Interim relief.

       (xxxv)    Compensation for mental pain and agony.

      (xxxvi)    Negligence in medical service.

    (xxxvii)    No negligence in medical service.

(xxxviii) Power of District Consumer Forum.

      (xxxix)    Complaint against contractor.

            (xl)    Local inspection.

          (xli)    Speedy disposal.

         (xlii)    Consumer justice.

        (xliii)    Claim based upon insurance policy is related to “service” being covered under Section 14, Consumer Protection Act.

        (xliv)    Quantification of damages—Relevant factors.

          (xlv)    Harassment and mental agony—Compensation for.

        (xlvi)    Inconvenience and hardship—Compensation for.

       (xlvii)    Loss of consignment—Compensation for.

      (xlviii)    Non-declaration of examination result—Compensation for.

        (xlix)    Refund of sale price.

              (l)    Disconnection of telephone on non-payment of bill—No irregularity.

            (li)    No entitlement for double accident benefit.

           (lii)    Motor accident claim based on insurance policy—Claim for reimbursement—Can be adjudicated upon by Consumer Forum.

chapter 17

compensation under the Negotiable Instruments, act, 1881

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Rules as to compensation.

              (i)    Payment of cheque.

            (ii)    Dishonest intention.

           (iii)    Liability.

            (iv)    Liable to compensate.

             (v)    Compensation to the holder of bill.

            (vi)    Interest.

          (vii)    Summary procedure.

         (viii)    Material alteration.

            (ix)    Burden of Proof.

             (x)    Consideration.

            (xi)    Liability of the drawee or payee.

          (xii)    Decree for balance of money due has to be granted.

         (xiii)    Would constitute equal negligence in realisation of draft.

chapter 18

Compensation under the Indian Electricity Act

                 1.... Introduction

                 2.... Repeal.

                 3.... Definitions.

               q    Who is licensee ?

                 4.... Provisions as to the opening and breaking-up of streets, railways and tramways.

              (i)    Licensee’s right to lay down or place supply lines.

            (ii)    Licensee shall pay such compensation.

           (iii)    Not without consent.

            (iv)    Occupier or owner—Meaning of.

             (v)    When the licensee lays underground cables.

            (vi)    Hearing by District Magistrate.

          (vii)    Payment of compensation or/and annual rent to private owner or occupier.

         (viii)    Revisional power of Government.

                 5.... Compensation for damage.

              (i)    Scope.

            (ii)    Scope of sections 12 to 19 of the Act.

           (iii)    Safeguard.

            (iv)    Damage, detriment and inconvenience.

             (v)    Interpretation.

            (vi)    Quantum of compensation.

          (vii)    Damages for—Arbitration.

         (viii)    Civil suit for recovery of damages for laying electricity lines along other’s land.

            (ix)    Arbitration.

             (x)    Writ against Electricity Board.

            (xi)    Death caused due to electrocution—Leakage of electric energy in street  due to rain—Interim compensation and compensation.

          (xii)    Due to negligence overhead electric wires becomes failure to maintain properly—Sparks causing fire to underneath grass and melting of wires resulting electrocution (death due to electric).

         (xiii)    Compensation circular of Electricity Board.

          (xiv)    Whether writ petition or civil suit.

           (xv)    Writ petition after electrocution.

          (xvi)    Writ petition—Maintainable.

        (xvii)    Writ petition for award of compensation is not always maintainable.

       (xviii)    Frustration of contract—Suit for realisation of amount for breach of contract.

          (xix)    Malpractice.

chapter 19

Claim for Damages and Compensation against Railways

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... General responsibility of a Railway administration as carrier of goods—(i) Limitation.

            (ii)    Power of framing rules.

           (iii)    Liability of Railway.

            (iv)    Delayed delivery of consignment—Damages.

                 3.... Goods to be loaded or delivered at a siding not belonging to a railway administration.

               q    Object.

                 4.... Delay or retention in transit.

               q    Transit of consignment delayed—Railway liable for damages.

                 5.... Traffic passing over railways in India and railways in foreign countries.

                 6.... Goods carried at owner’s risk rate.

              (i)    Railway’s responsibility.

            (ii)    Procedure.

                 7.... Goods in defective condition or defectively packed.

              (i)    Scope of the section.

            (ii)    Proviso.

                 8.... Responsibility of a railway administration after termination of transit

                 9.... Responsibility as carrier of luggage.

              10.... Responsibility as a carrier of animals.

              11.... Exoneration from liability in certain cases.

               q    Liability of compensation.

              12.... Extent of monetary liability in respect of any consignment.

              13.... Extent of liability in respect of goods carried in open wagon.

              (i)    Whether doctrine of promissory estoppel apply.

            (ii)    When doctrine of estoppel applies.

              14.... Right of railway administration to check contents of certain consignment of luggage.

               q    Railway administration.

              15.... Notice of claim for compensation and refund of overcharge.

              (i)    Scope.

            (ii)    Overcharge.

              16.... Application for compensation for loss, etc. of goods

              17.... Person entitled to claim compensation.

               q    To be estsopped from taking plea.

              18.... Railway administration against which application for compensation for personal injury is to be filed.

               q    “Entertain”—Meaning of.

              19.... Burden of proof.

              20.... Extent of liability of railway administration in respect of accidents at sea.

              21.... Power to make rules in respect of matters in this Chapter

               q    Scope.

              22.... Definitions.

              (i)    Interpretation of the word “otherwise”.

            (ii)    Husband of deceased awarded compensation.

           (iii)    Criminal assault and robbery suffered by a passenger in train.

            (iv)    Claimant-passenger while travelling in train was attacked by some intruder—Compensation.

             (v)    Only bona fide passenger is entitled to compensation.

            (vi)    Accidental falling from train—Whether amounted an untoward incident—Compensation.

              23.... Extent of liability.

              (i)    Railway servant on duty is a passenger.

            (ii)    Accident or mishap—Meaning of.

           (iii)    Untoword accident—Compensation for.

            (iv)    Emphasis in Section 82-A.

             (v)    Accident of a bus hired by Railway authorities with another bus is a Railway Accident.

            (vi)    Doctrine of remoteness.

          (vii)    Award of compensation to injured person and dependents of deceased.

              24.... Compensation on account of untoward incidents.

               q    Claimant pushed on railway track—Lost both legs—Compensation.

              25.... Application for compensation.

              (i)    Retrospective effect.

            (ii)    Transfer of Cases.

              26.... Interim relief by railway administration.

              27.... Determination of compensation in respect of any injury or loss of goods.

               q    Doctrine of estoppel.

              28.... Saving as to certain rights.

               q    Death of TTE while on duty—Compensation.

              29.... Power to make rules in respect of matters in this chapter.

railway passenger insurance scheme, 1994.

the railway claims tribunal (procedure) rules, 1989

railway passengers (manner of investigation of untoward incidents) rules, 2003.

The railway accidents AND UNTOWARD INCIDENTS  (compensation) ruleS, 1990

the railway claims tribunal act, 1987

                    ... Statement of Objects and Reasons

              (i)    Explanation of statutes

            (ii)    Legislatures intention

                 1.... Short title, extent and commencement.

              (i)    Intention of Legislature.

            (ii)    Generalia specialibus non derogant.

           (iii)    Words to be understood in their popular and familiar sense and not in their scientific or technical sense.

                 2.... Definitions.

              (i)    Explanation.

            (ii)    Where no definition provided.

Establishment of Railway Claims Tribunal and  Benches thereof

                 3.... Establishment of Railway Claims Tribunal.

                 4.... Composition of Claims Tribunal and Benches thereof.

              (i)    Claims Tribunal—Compensation of.

            (ii)    Proviso.

                 5.... Qualification for appointment as  Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member.

                 6.... Vice-Chairman to act as  Chairman or to discharge his functions in certain circumstances:

                 7.... Terms of Office.

                 8.... Resignation and removal.

                 9.... Salaries and allowances and other terms and conditions of service of Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other members.

              10.... Provision as to the holding of offices by Chairman, Vice-Chairman, etc., on ceasing to be such Chairman or Vice-Chairman, etc.

              11.... Financial and administrative powers of Chairman.

              12.... Staff of Claims Tribunal.

Jurisdiction, powers and authority of Claims Tribunal

              13.... Jurisdiction, powers and authority of Claims Tribunal.

              (i)    Civil Court has no jurisdiction and case transferred to Railway Claims Tribunal.

            (ii)    Civil Court’s jurisdiction to adjudicate claim against Railway Administration for refund of freight charges.

           (iii)    Railway Claim Tribunal—Jurisdiction of.

              14.... Distribution of business amongst Benches.

              15.... Bar of jurisdiction.

              16.... Application to Claims Tribunal.

              17.... Limitation.

              (i)    Admission of application—Limitation on.

            (ii)    Relief not to be denied only on ground of delay.

           (iii)    Provisions of Limitation.

            (iv)    Claim for damages—Limitation.

             (v)    Claim—Limitation for.

            (vi)    Claim—On basis of law which did not exist on date of accident.

          (vii)    Application for Compensation—Limitation.

         (viii)    Provision as to condonation of delay.

              18.... Procedure and powers of Claims Tribunal.

              (i)    Provision.

            (ii)    Multiplier method—Expectancy of life.

           (iii)    Quantum of compensation.

            (iv)    Compensation—Inadequate.

             (v)    Estimation of damages.

            (vi)    Right to equality.

          (vii)    Principles of section 34 C.P.C. are applicable.

         (viii)    Railway Claims Tribunal is not a civil Court.

            (ix)    No distinction between the award of compensation to be granted to an adult and a baby.

             (x)    Six months old baby—Whether valid passenger ?

            (xi)    Payment of interest—Liability of.

              19.... Right to legal representation and presenting officers.

              20.... Power of Chairman to transfer cases from one Bench to another.

              21.... Decision to be by majority.

              22.... Execution of order of Claims Tribunal.

              23.... Appeals.

               q .. High Court empowered to reverse.

              24.... Transfer of pending cases.

              (i)    Claim Tribunal—Transfer of cases.

            (ii)    Constitutional validity.

           (iii)    Delay in filing appeal—Condonation of delay.

              25.... Proceedings before  Claims Tribunal to be judicial proceedings.

               q .. Quasi-judicial authority bound to act fairly.

              26.... Members and staff of Claims Tribunal to be public servants.

              27.... Protection of action taken in good faith.

              28.... Act to have overriding effect.

              29.... Power to remove difficulties.

              30.... Power to make rules.

              (i)    General power of framing rules.

            (ii)    Rules—Whether validly framed.

Amendment to the Railways Act

              31.... Amendment of section 3.

              32.... Amendment of section 78-A.

              33.... Substitution of new section for section 80.

              34.... Omission of section 82-B, 82-D and 82-F.

              35.... Amendment of section 82-C.

              36.... Amendment of sections 82-E, 82-G and 82HH.

              37.... Amendment of section 82-I.

              38.... Amendment of section 82-J.

The railway (notices of and inquiries into accidents) Rules 1998

the statutory investigation into railway accidents rules, 1998

chapter 20

compensation under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Legislative changes in definition of industry.

              (i)    Industry.

            (ii)    Within industry.

                 3.... “Workman”—Definition.

                 4.... Application of sections 25-C to 25-E.

                 5.... Definition of continuous service.

                 6.... Right of workmen laid-off for compensation.

                 7.... Duty of an employer to maintain muster-rolls of workmen.

                 8.... Workmen not entitled to compensation in certain cases.

                 9.... Conditions precedent to retrenchment of workmen.

              10.... Compensation to workmen in case of transfer of undertakings

              11.... Sixty days’ notice to be given of intention to close down any undertaking

              12.... Compensation to workmen in case of closing down of undertaking.

              13.... Procedure for retrenchment.

              14.... Re-employment of retrenched workmen.

              15.... Effect of laws inconsistent with this chapter.

              (i)    Lay off compensation.

            (ii)    Same salary and allowance.

           (iii)    Writ jurisdiction under Article 226.

            (iv)    Employees to get compensation.

             (v)    Compensation as well as interim order.

            (vi)    Wrongful termination of service.

          (vii)    Termination of service.

         (viii)    Strike—Legality of.

            (ix)    Mens rea in punishment.

             (x)    Statutory provisions.

            (xi)    Jurisdiction of civil Courts.

          (xii)    Dispute over standing orders.

         (xiii)    Jurisdiction of labour Court.

          (xiv)    No provision for opportunity of hearing to delinquent employee.

           (xv)    Retrenchment—Permanent employee of statutory Corporation.

          (xvi)    Workmen.

        (xvii)    Closure of Industry—Workers entitled to compensation.

chapter 21

Compensation arising out ofAcquisition of Land

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Matters to be considered in determining compensation

              (i)    Conpensation in instalmentsViolative of provisions.

            (ii)    Whether compensation according to market value—Determination.

           (iii)    Situation and potentiality of land in adjoining village are different.

            (iv)    Certified copy of registered agreement for sale is admissible.

             (v)    Letters patent appeal.

            (vi)    Claimants would be entitled to benefit.

          (vii)    Compensation—Deduction.

         (viii)    Compensation—Withholding substantial portion.

            (ix)    Compensation amount withheld—Amounts to red-tapism.

             (x)    Market value enhanced.

            (xi)    Solatium and interest.

          (xii)    Burden of proof.

         (xiii)    Additional compensation.

          (xiv)    Compensation—Cut-of on the rate of.

           (xv)    Award of compensation—Appeal.

          (xvi)    Award of compensation—How to be comoputed.

                 3.... Matters to be neglected in determining compensation.

               q    Interpretation.

                 4.... Amount of compensation awarded by Court not to be lower than the amount awarded by the Collector

              (i)    Awarded amount—Reduction of.

            (ii)    Interest on excess compensation.

                 5.... Form of Awards.

                 6.... Costs.

                 7.... Collector may be directed to pay interest on excess compensation.

              (i)    Award of interest—Court has no discretion in the matter.

            (ii)    Word “may” in proviso to section 28 has to be construed as “shall”.

                 8.... Re-determination of the amount of compensation on the basis of the award of the Court.

              (i)    Redetermination of compensation.

            (ii)    Limitation.

           (iii)    C.P.C., 1908—Application.

                 9.... Particulars of apportionment to be specified.

              10.... Dispute as to apportionment.

              (i)    Compensation—Apportionment of.

            (ii)    Provision of section 30.

              11.... Payment of compensation or deposit of same in Court.

               q    Compensation to be determined by applying multiplier of ten.

              12.... Investment of money deposited in respect of lands belonging to persons incompetent to alienate.

              13.... Investment of money deposited in other cases.

              14.... Payment of interest.

              (i)    Interest on compensation.

            (ii)    No interest.

              15.... Temporary occupation of waste or arable land procedure when difference as to compensation exists.

              16.... Powers to enter and take possession and compensation on restoration.

              17.... Difference as to condition of land.

               q    Provision.

PART TWO

INTERIM RELIEF

chapter 22

laws Relating to Interim Relief

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Suit for damages.

                 3.... Interim relief under the Cconstitution of India.

                 4.... Right to remedy—Under Article 32 of the Constitution.

                 5.... Suspension of remedy during Emergency.

                 6.... Right to remedy under Article 226 of the Constitution.

                 7.... Relation between Articles 32 and 226.

                 8.... On what grounds the Court may refuse remedy.

                 9.... Writ jurisdiction.

              10.... Grounds on which Court can refuse remedy

              (i)    Locus standi.

            (ii)    Public Interest Litigation (P I L).

           (iii)    Blatant abuse of judicial process.

            (iv)    Delay.

             (v)    Frivolous, vexatious and unjust claim.

              11.... Violation of Fundamental Freedoms and Human Rights—Writ for compensation.

              12.... Supreme Court on interim relief on criminal law.

              13.... Compensation refused.

              14.... Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc.

              (i)    Compensation due to illegal detention.

            (ii)    On maintenance.

           (iii)    Supreme Court on interim relief on violation of fundamental rights.

            (iv)    Supreme Courts on interim relief on civil law.

             (v)    High Courts on interim relief.

            (vi)    Constitution of India, Articles 32 and 226—Powers of Courts under—Petition for compensation.

          (vii)    Writ petition —Filed with delay and interim relief also not pressed.

         (viii)    Death of resident doctor in service—Whether, petitioner, father of deceased entitled to interim compensation from State Government.

chapter 23

Interim Compensation

under the Criminal Law

                 1.... Interim compensation to victim of rape.

                 2.... Injunction pending inquiry.

               q    Conditions in which injunction can be issued.

chapter 24

Interim Relief underthe Civil Procedure Code, 1908

                 1.... Saving of inherent powers of Court.

              (i)    Inherent powers of Court.

            (ii)    Inherent powers under section 151 C.P.C.—Interim relief in suit seeking compensation for death of plaintiff’s parents due to negligence of defendant—Court has got inherent powers to grant interim relief.

           (iii)    Interim relief or Interim compensation.

            (iv)    Whether interim relief after about a lapse of 2 years from the date of the occurrence.

             (v)    No forum prescribed for suit for maintenance—Award of interim maintenance.

                 2.... Cases in which temporary injunction may be granted.

                 3.... Injunction to restrain repetition or continuance of breach.

              (i)    Principles.

            (ii)    Marriage.

           (iii)    Interim injunction—In what suit.

            (iv)    Interim mandatory injunctions.

             (v)    “Status quo” order.

            (vi)    Actus curiae neminem gravabit—Applicability of.

          (vii)    Relief can be refused.

         (viii)    Jurisdiction.

            (ix)    In matrimonial case—Interim relief—Interim relief

             (x)    Stay Order.

            (xi)    Interim relief as interim maintenance.

          (xii)    Interim order of maintenance.

         (xiii)    Interim Relief and Interim Compensation.

          (xiv)    Interim relief is an interim award.

           (xv)    Interim award—Choice of Forum.

          (xvi)    Interim compensation to be adjusted in final determination.

        (xvii)    Court empowered to pass interim and ad-interim orders.

chapter 25

Interim Relief under

the Indian Railways Act, 1989

                 1.... Powers of the Tribunal.

                 2.... Interim relief by railway administration.

              (i)    Determination of compensation in respect of any injury or loss of goods.

            (ii)    To claim compensation not more than one in respect of the same accident.

           (iii)    Principle of estoppel arises.

            (iv)    Interim relief by railway administration.

chapter 26

Interim Relief under the M.V. Act, 1988

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Liability to pay compensation in certain cases on the principle of no fault.

                 3.... Provision as to other right to claim compensation for death or permanent disablement.

                 4.... Permanent disablement.

                 5.... Applicability of Chapter to certain claims under Act 8 of 1923.

                 6.... Overriding effect.

              (i)    Interim relief to claimants.

            (ii)    Interim relief—Choice of forum prescribed.

           (iii)    Tractor was not in use.

            (iv)    Factum of Insurance.

             (v)    Question of existence or validity of, while passing the interim award.

            (vi)    Interim Award.

          (vii)    Interest.

         (viii)    Interim award—Liability of Insurance Company.

            (ix)    Duty of Tribunal to act suo motu.

             (x)    Constitutional complexion.

            (xi)    No retrospective effect.

          (xii)    Petition filed under section 140 M.V. Act, 1988 cannot be dismissed.

         (xiii)    Enhancement of compensation applies after 14.11.1994.

          (xiv)    Enhancement of compensation—Validity.

           (xv)    Whether interim compensation to be adjusted.

          (xvi)    Appeal against interim award.

        (xvii)    Interim Award—Revision under C.P.C.

chapter 27

Interim Relief under

the Fatal Accidents Act, 1855

                    ... Interim relief

chapter 28

Rules Relating to Maintenance

                    ... Background of Maintenance.

the hindu adoptions and maintenance act, 1956

                 1.... Preamble.

              (i)    Whether exhaustive.

            (ii)    Object of the Act.

           (iii)    The Act recognised the right of Hindu wife

            (iv)    Legislation.

             (v)    Two-fold basis of liability.

                 2.... Short title and extent.

              (i)    Commencement.

            (ii)    Application to the territory.

                 3.... Application of Act.

              (i)    Definition of the word “Hindu”.

            (ii)    Interpretation.

           (iii)    Sub-section (2).

            (iv)    Sub-section (2-A).

             (v)    Sub-section (3).

                 4.... Definitions.

              (i)    “Custom” and “Usage”.

            (ii)    Definition of maintenance.

           (iii)    Minor.

                 5.... Overriding effect of Act.

              (i)    Interpretation of the section.

            (ii)    Relations with the other Acts.

                 6.... Maintenance of wife.

              (i)    Marriage.

            (ii)    Matrimonial rights and duties of wife and husband.

           (iii)    Scope and applicability of the section.

            (iv)    When the marriage is denied.

             (v)    Sub-section (1) of section 18.

            (vi)    Whether only legal wife of Hindu can claim maintenance.

          (vii)    Maintenance of married woman.

         (viii)    Dissolved marriage—Maintenance.

            (ix)    Wife is entitled to live separately.

             (x)    Enlargement of female right of maintenance.

            (xi)    Maintenance on the ground pleaded by wife.

          (xii)    Cohabitation after decree.

         (xiii)    Desertion.

          (xiv)    Desertion—Difference in said two Acts.

           (xv)    Desertion by neglecting.

          (xvi)    Cruelty depends on facts and circumstances.

        (xvii)    Drunkenness.

       (xviii)    Impotency.

          (xix)    Cruelty and proof.

           (xx)    Virulent form of leprosy.

          (xxi)    Any other wife living.

        (xxii)    Concubine.

       (xxiii)    Husband ceases to be Hindu.

        (xxiv)    Any other justifying cause.

         (xxv)    Sub-section (3) of section 18.

        (xxvi)    Wife getting maintenance under Section 125, Cr PC Court has however to take into consideration such sum.

      (xxvii)    Wife must prove necessary conditions.

     (xxviii)    Maintenance claimed by divorced wife.

        (xxix)    Maintenance of wife and the property of her husband.

         (xxx)    Whether charge over husband’s property.

        (xxxi)    Property situated beyond the jurisdiction of court.

      (xxxii)    Charge on joint property.

     (xxxiii)    Theory of lis pendens applies.

      (xxxiv)    Gratuitous Transfer.

       (xxxv)    Provision of interim maintenance.

      (xxxvi)    Where suit for maintenance—Interim maintenance during the pendency of—No forum prescribed but civil Court has got inherent jurisdiction to award interim maintenance.

                 7.... Maintenance of widowed daughter-in-law.

              (i)    Scope of the section.

            (ii)    Prior law.

           (iii)    Alienation of separate property.

            (iv)    Coparcenary property.

             (v)    Possession of widowed daughter-in-law.

            (vi)    Maintenance and residence.

          (vii)    Remarriage.

         (viii)    Maintenance from what date.

            (ix)    Interim maintenance.

             (x)    Destitute widowed daughter has a right to claim maintenance.

                 8.... Maintenance of children and aged parents.

              (i)    Pre-existing law.

            (ii)    Scope.

           (iii)    Object.

            (iv)    Obligation towards children.

             (v)    Children in custody of the mother or guardian.

            (vi)    Child can sue or bring a suit through mother.

          (vii)    Whether adopted son is entitled to maintenance.

         (viii)    Father becomes muslim.

            (ix)    Child ceases to be a Hindu.

             (x)    Execution of joint-decree.

            (xi)    Maintenance from which date.

          (xii)    Maintenance for daughter.

         (xiii)    Negligence by doctor in family planning operation—Principle of— Maintenance and compensation from Government.

                 9.... Dependants defined.

              (i)    Scope.

            (ii)    Changes in the old Law.

           (iii)    Maintenance qua joint family property.

            (iv)    Widowed daughter.

              10.... Maintenance of dependants.

              (i)    Scope and applicability.

             (a)    Sub-section (1).

             (b)    Sub-section (2).

             (c)    Sub-section (3).

             (d)    Sub-section (4).

            (ii)    Object relating to maintenance of dependants.

           (iii)    Pre-Act right not effected.

            (iv)    Against the husband the right of maintenance of the first wife.

             (v)    Prospective.

            (vi)    Who is an heir.

          (vii)    Word “estate”—Widely construed.

         (viii)    Interest in joint family property.

            (ix)    Right of widowed mother qua her children.

             (x)    Destitute widowed daughter is entitled to maintenance.

              11.... Amount of maintenance.

              (i)    Principles.

            (ii)    Unmarried daughter.

           (iii)    Unmarried grand-daughter.

            (iv)    Widowed daughter-in-law.

             (v)    Sister.

            (vi)    Concubine (Awarudh Stri or Mistress).

          (vii)    When wife becomes widow.

         (viii)    Widow of a void marriage.

            (ix)    Widow’s right.

             (x)    Act of 1937.

            (xi)    Rights of a widow of separate living.

          (xii)    Property of a female Hindu to be her absolute property.

         (xiii)    Property acquired by settlement.

          (xiv)    By decree.

           (xv)    Interim maintenance.

          (xvi)    Position and status of parties.

        (xvii)    Claimant’s property and earnings.

       (xviii)    Fixation of quantum.

          (xix)    Value of the property of the dependant.

           (xx)    Maintenance of widow.

          (xxi)    Arrears.

        (xxii)    Interest of arrears.

       (xxiii)    Maintenance from what date.

        (xxiv)    Execution of decree.

              12.... Claimant to maintenance should be a Hindu.

              (i)    Scope and applicability.

              13.... Amount of maintenance may be altered on change of circumstances.

              (i)    Object.

            (ii)    Procedure for seeking alteration.

           (iii)    Maintenance can be fixed by parties themselves.

            (iv)    Material change in circumstances.

             (v)    Enhanced maintenance.

              14.... Debts to have priority.

               q    Scope.

              15.... Maintenance when to be a charge.

               q    Scope and applicability.

              16.... Effect of transfer of property on right to maintenance.

              (i)    Scope.

            (ii)    Alienation.

           (iii)    Right to receive enhanced maintenance.

            (iv)    Wife, minor children and parents.

             (v)    Alienation after charge.

            (vi)    No charge if not prayed.

          (vii)    Attachment, amounts to a charge.

chapter 29

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Maintenance pendente lite and expenses of proceedings.

              (i)    Object, scope and applicability.

            (ii)    Court has power to grant maintenance pendente lite.

           (iii)    Husband and wife both.

            (iv)    On facts and circumstances.

             (v)    Liberal approach of the court.

            (vi)    Income of wife.

          (vii)    Wife have sufficient means—Grant of maintenance improper.

         (viii)    Application for interim maintenance by wife—Provision under which can be filed.

            (ix)    Denial of marriage.

             (x)    Maintenance of child.

            (xi)    No maintenance.

          (xii)    Separate application.

         (xiii)    Right of maintenance.

          (xiv)    Allowance of maintenance.

           (xv)    Amount of maintenance pendente lite.

          (xvi)    When husband denies marriage.

        (xvii)    Application rejected under Cr. P. C.

       (xviii)    Summary proceedings.

          (xix)    No postponement and quick disposal.

           (xx)    Default by the respondent.

          (xxi)    Interim maintenance, during the pendency of the petition of permanent alimony.

        (xxii)    Defaulter is the appellant.

       (xxiii)    Order can be executed like a decree.

        (xxiv)    Can be recovered from salary.

         (xxv)    Whether amounts to contempt.

        (xxvi)    Alteration.

      (xxvii)    Adjustment of maintenance amount.

     (xxviii)    Appeal.

        (xxix)    Modification.

                 3.... Permanent alimony and maintenance.

              (i)    Scope, object and applicability.

            (ii)    Permanent alimony—Grant of.

           (iii)    Jurisdiction of courts and appellate court.

            (iv)    Maintenance on passing any decree.

             (v)    Decree of divorce.

            (vi)    Decree on the ground of unchastity.

          (vii)    No time-limit prescribed.

         (viii)    Expression “wife and husband”.

            (ix)    No maintenance.

             (x)    Wife not entitled to maintenance and expenses—Grounds.

            (xi)    Interim maintenance.

          (xii)    Death of the husband.

         (xiii)    Permanent maintenance ceases interim maintenance.

          (xiv)    Appeal.

           (xv)    Whether a divorced wife can claim maintenance ornot ?

                 4.... Custody of children.

              (i)    Interim orders by the court with regard to minor children.

            (ii)    Separate Application.

           (iii)    Maintenance of unmarried daughter.

chapter 30

Maintenance Under

the code of criminal procedure, 1973

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents

              (i)    Scope, object and applicability.

            (ii)    Duty of the Court.

           (iii)    Right to maintenance is independent of personal law.

            (iv)    Application of the section to all communities.

             (v)    Social and religious duty.

            (vi)    Maintenance proceedings—Strict proof not required.­

          (vii)    Who can move the application.

         (viii)    Interim maintenance—Order for.

            (ix)    Pendency of the proceedings under the Hindu Marriage Act and a petition under Section 125 Cr.P.C.

             (x)    Burden of proof.

            (xi)    “Neglect or refuse to maintain”.

          (xii)    Right to claim maintenance from husband.

         (xiii)    Maintenance to wife and children.

          (xiv)    Proof of Marriage.

           (xv)    Validity of marriage disputed—Grant of maintenance—Discussed.

          (xvi)    Presumption of marriage.

        (xvii)    Civil court decree is a proof of the marriage.

       (xviii)    Whether second wife can claim maintenance.

          (xix)    Claim for maintenance on re-marriage of husband.

           (xx)    Respondent-husband married with petitioner on misrepresentation that his earlier wife was dead—Petitioner-wife and daughter born entitled to maintenance.

          (xxi)    Muslim personal law.

        (xxii)    Adultery proved—Maintenance proper.

       (xxiii)    Maintenance—From the date of application—Legal.

        (xxiv)    Amendment of plaint.

         (xxv)    Whether divorced woman has right to maintenance.

        (xxvi)    Effect of the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986.

      (xxvii)    Maintenance to divorced Muslim woman under Cr. P.C.

     (xxviii)    Maintenance to Children.

        (xxix)    Dispute concerning paternity of child by father—Child is entitled to get maintenance.

             (a)    Illegitimate child.

             (b)    Adopted son.

         (xxx)    Maintenance of Muslim children—Entitlement.

        (xxxi)    Maintenance of parents.

      (xxxii)    Unmarried daughter—Maintenance.

     (xxxiii)    Imprisonment.

      (xxxiv)    Ex-parte order—Proceeding after.

       (xxxv)    Application for recovery of arrears—Dismissed—Restoration of.

      (xxxvi)    Maintenance can be adjusted.

    (xxxvii)    No excessive maintenance awarded because husband working as professional fisherman.

(xxxviii) Maintenance according to income.

      (xxxix)    Interim maintenance.

            (xl)    Maintenance from what date.

          (xli)    Enforcement of the Order.

             (a)    Warrant.

             (b)    Attachment of salary.

         (xlii)    Just ground for wife’s refusal.

        (xliii)    Wife living separately without sufficient cause.

        (xliv)    Restitution of conjugal rights—Decree

          (xlv)    When wife not entitled to maintenance ?

        (xlvi)    Effects of decrees.

       (xlvii)    Revision.

      (xlviii)    Scheme provided under Act, 1986 is also equally beneficial like one provided under Section 125, Cr.P.C. i.e. to avoid vagrancy.

        (xlix)    Recovery of post arrears of maintenance—Limitation.

              (l)    Documents filed by husband in support of his plea that applicant wife was possessed of sufficient means—Maintenance to wife.

            (li)    Order of maintenance passed before enforcement of Act of 1986.

           (lii)    Maintenance and compensation from Government due to negligence by doctor in family planning operation—Principle.

          (liii)    “Mere plea in the written statement of a divorce having been pronounced some time in the past”.

          (liv)    Maintenance—Application by muslim wife—Maintainability of.

            (lv)    Maintenance—Obligation of Christian father to minor child.

          (lvi)    Proceeding under Section 125, Cr.P.C. vis-a-vis Section 24 H.M. Act.

         (lvii)    Marriage annulled by decree—Maintenance to child not to wife.

        (lviii)    Value of decree.

          (lix)    Muslim divorced woman—Claim for maintenance.

            (lx)    Maintenance—Muslim divorced women.

          (lxi)    Maintenance to wife—Husband an old man incapable of maintaining himself.

         (lxii)    Grant of Maintenance to minor child—DNA test—Proof of legitimacy.

        (lxiii)    Maintenance petition by wife—Proof of marriage.

        (lxiv)    Application for change of maintenance allowance.

          (lxv)    Arrear of maintenance for more than one year—Power of Court to grant.

        (lxvi)    Income determined—Quantum of maintenance.

       (lxvii)    Amount of maintenance—Circumstances to be considered.

      (lxviii)    Claim for maintenance—Husbands’ plea of adultery.

        (lxix)    Divorced but not remarried.

          (lxx)    Maintenance—Enhancement of—When permissible.

        (lxxi)    Grant of maintenance allowance from date of application.

       (lxxii)    Grant of maintenance to Muslim minor daughter on date of divorce—Permissibility of.

      (lxxiii)    Interlocutory order and interim order—Interpretation of.

      (lxxiv)    Joint Hindu family—Liability for maintenance.

        (lxxv)    Lump sum payment of maintenance.

      (lxxvi)    Adjournments of case on several occasions—Maintenance.

     (lxxvii)    Divorce by mutual consent—Maintenance allowance—Grant of.

    (lxxviii)    Maintenance of mother—Entitlement of.

      (lxxix)    Absence of affidavit—Maintenance awarded.

        (lxxx)    Claim of wife for additional maintenance amount.

      (lxxxi)    Maintenance granted by civil Court—Effect of.

     (lxxxii)    Maintenance from the date of application—No bar.

    (lxxxiii)    Maintenance pendente lite.

    (lxxxiv)    Maintenance—No related with religion, caste or personal law.

      (lxxxv)    Father’s income—Irrelevant for fixing son’s liability for maintenance.

    (lxxxvi)    Nature of proceedings for maintenance.

(lxxxvii) Double maintenance—Not permissible.

(lxxxviii) Order for maintenance—Proof of neglect or refusal necessary.

    (lxxxix)    Mere occasional visit by husband—No proof of maintenance.

           (xc)    Offer by husband to maintain and refusal by wife.

          (xci)    Offer to maintain cannot take effect retrospectively under Section 125 (3), Cr. P.C.

        (xcii)    Wife may live separately on justifiable grounds and get allowance.

       (xciii)    Maintenance in favour of 7 years old son—No interference.

        (xciv)    Grant of maintenance to wife and minor son.

         (xcv)    Power of Court to recover maintenance amount.

        (xcvi)    Ex parte interim maintenance order.

      (xcvii)    Who is liable to pay maintenance ?

     (xcviii)    Private agreement to pay maintenance—No bar for proceedings.

        (xcix)    Arrears of maintenance allowance—Recovery of.

             (c)    Second marriage entitles wife for separate living and maintenance.

            (ci)    Second wife can claim maintenance.

          (cii)    Effective date of payment of maintenance.

         (ciii)    Commencement of both civil and criminal proceedings for maintenance—Proceedings under Section 125, Cr. P.C. Ought to be stayed.

          (civ)    Arrears of maintenance—Abatement of.

           (cv)    Facts to be proved in maintenance case.

          (cvi)    Inability to maintain.

        (cvii)    Maintenance order—When exhausted.

       (cviii)    Cancellation of orders for maintenance—Jurisdiction.

                 3.... Procedure.

              (i)    Object.

            (ii)    Word ‘Order’ used in Section 126 (2), Cr. P.C.

           (iii)    Forum.

            (iv)    Procedure for service ex parte.

             (v)    Evidence.

            (vi)    Wilful absence.

          (vii)    Restoration.

         (viii)    Marriage with pregnant woman—Husband cannot refuse to pay maintenance.

                 4.... Alteration in allowance under section 127.

              (i)    Scope.

            (ii)    Change in the circumstances.

           (iii)    Jurisdiction.

            (iv)    Alteration in allowance.

             (v)    Divorced woman/wife.

            (vi)    Maintenance to Muslim woman—Cancellation of, held improper.

          (vii)    Revision.

                 5.... Enforcement of order of maintenance.

              (i)    Scope.

            (ii)    Copy to be supplied free of cost.

           (iii)    Any Magistrate.

            (iv)    Cr.P.C. and the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986.

             (v)    Cost.

chapter 31

Maintenance under

the Indian Divorce Act, 1869

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Alimony pendente lite.

              (i)    Quantum of interim maintenance.

            (ii)    Damages from adulterer.

                 3.... Power to order permanent alimony.

                 4.... Court may direct payment of alimony to wife or to her trustee.

chapter 32

Maintenance under

the Special Marriage Act, 1954

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Relief for respondent in divorce and other proceedings.

                 3.... Alimony pendente lite.

                r    Value of the recommendation of the Law Commission.

                 4.... Permanent alimony and maintenance.

                r    Maintenance.

                 5.... Custody of children.

                r    Welfare of children.

chapter 33

Maintenance under the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986

                 1.... Introduction.

                 2.... Mahr or other properties of Muslim woman to be given to her at the time of divorce.